This chapter covers the fundamentals of the Java programming language. If you have written Java programs, you should be familiar with most of the material in this chapter. However, you might not be sure of a few things. The questions on the certification exam will exploit this uncertaintyso pay careful attention to the material that is presented. Make sure that you read through each section, even if you think that you know it cold. The review questions and exam questions will let you know how well you know this material and will give you an idea of how well you will do with exam-related questions.