- Relevant Laws and Executive Orders
- Relevant Case Law
- Legal Concepts/Definitions Relevant to Workplace Planning and Employment
- Recruiting Candidates
- The Selection Process
- Background Checks
- Employment: Extending the Offer
- Negotiating the Offer of Employment
- Termination: The End of the Employment Life Cycle...or Is It?
- Exit Interviews
- Severance Packages
- Affirmative Action Plans
- Compensation and Benefits
- Documentation Strategies for HR Professionals
- Chapter Summary
- Apply Your Knowledge
Apply Your Knowledge
This chapter focuses on issues relating to workforce planning and employment. Complete the following review questions and exam questions as a way of reviewing and reinforcing the knowledge and skills you’ll need to perform your responsibilities as an HR professional and to increase the likelihood that you will pass the SPHR examination.
- Describe directive and nondirective interviews. In general, which is the preferred approach?
- What are some of the factors that need to be considered when using performance as a criterion for determining who will be let go in a layoff situation?
- What are some best practices with respect to taking notes during an interview?
- Describe sexual harassment that takes the form of a hostile work environment.
- Define and describe the differences between a mass layoff and a plant closing (according to WARNA).
For some time, you’ve wanted to implement an exit interview process at your organization. You feel strongly that there’s a lot of valuable information that can be gleaned from departing employees, and you want to convince “the powers that be” of this, as well. You’re ready to put together a proposal and want to present the best possible arguments for establishing an exit interview program. Which of the following would be the strongest reason that you could include in your proposal to senior HR and line leadership?
- A. If managers know that departing employees will have the opportunity to provide feedback as they are leaving the organization, they may be less likely to intentionally behave in ways that are problematic, or to treat employees in an unprofessional manner.
- B. Because managers will be able to attribute comments made during exit interviews to specific employees, they will be better able to assess the validity of the feedback that departing employees provide.
- C. Exit interviews provide an excellent opportunity to learn about how employees truly feel. Although employees may have been hesitant to express their thoughts while employed with the organization, this same level of anxiety will not exist during the exit interview process—so departing employees can articulate their feelings more comfortably.
- D. Exit interviews provide a unique opportunity to capture useful and relevant feedback from employees about a number of factors, such as the nature of the supervision that the employee experienced and the employee’s relationship with his or her or her supervisor. This is information that in the absence of an exit interview process might not otherwise be obtained.
When you conduct employment interviews, you sometimes notice that candidates appear extremely nervous throughout most of the interview. To try to combat this, you’ve decided to rethink the way you begin your interviews and do more rapport building. Which of the following would be the best way to build rapport with your candidates?
- A. Look at the candidate’s resume to see whether you have anything in common with the candidate—such as hobbies, interests, former employers, place of residence, or any other shared commonality.
- B. Place personal pictures—for instance, of your family members—within easy view of the candidate. This way, the candidate can ask you about something that they know you’d be interested in talking about.
- C. Talk about the weather. It’s something that you know the two of you are certain to share in common, it’s often changing, and it’s neutral. If a blizzard or heat wave comes your way, you’re certain to have rapport building for at least a week.
- D. Choose a prominent current event—one that you are confident the candidate would know about—and refer to it in a somewhat general manner. This way, even if you and the employee are not in full agreement on the topic, the conversation will be superficial enough that no one will be offended, and you’ve still found something interesting to talk about (certainly more interesting than the weather).
In reviewing your organization’s most recent affirmative action plan, you notice that there is underutilization of women in a particular job group. Which of the following actions would be most appropriate to take?
- A. Try to convince women in other job groups to accept transfers into the job group in which there is underutilization.
- B. If both male and female candidates apply for position openings in the underutilized job group, hire the women.
- C. Hire the best qualified candidate for the position, whether that person is male or female.
- D. Reach out to related professional organizations that are likely to have women as members.
You’ve recently been given feedback that the onboarding process is too cumbersome, time consuming, and overly focused on administrative paperwork. You’re focusing on a number of areas where you can streamline and improve this process, including how verification of employees’ identity and employment is handled. Which of the following would be an appropriate step to consider?
- A. When you send out offer letters, send new hires a list of acceptable documents that they can bring with them on their first day of work to establish identity and eligibility to work.
- B. Instead of having new hires prepare their I-9s on their first day of employment, ask them to submit all required paperwork in advance.
- C. Have the newly hired employees complete the entire I-9 form, except for the signature section, to minimize the number of times that the I-9 needs to be passed back and forth between HR and the employee.
- D. Allow employees a full week to present their I-9 documents. In that way, the administrative responsibilities associated with onboarding can be spread out over a longer period of time.
You strongly prefer to conduct directive interviews because in your experience you end up with better information and can make better hiring recommendations to your client managers. At the beginning of one particular interview, the candidate pulls out a list of questions that she wants to ask you before she decides whether to proceed with the balance of the interview. Which of the following responses would be most appropriate?
- A. Explain to the candidate that you use a directive approach to interviewing and that it helps you make better hiring recommendations. As such, you’ll be happy to answer her questions at the end of the interview.
- B. Explain to the candidate that you will be happy to answer her questions at the end of the interview, after she has had an opportunity to answer the questions that you will be asking her.
- C. Because there is nothing to be gained by getting into a confrontation with a candidate, you decide to answer her questions. Besides, in light of her approach, you’ve already decided to eliminate her from consideration for the position.
- D. Because there is nothing to be gained by getting into a confrontation with a candidate, you decide to answer her questions. Besides, in light of her approach, you think she might have just the kind of spunk and tenacity that your organization needs.
Which of the following forms of discrimination is not covered by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
- A. Age
- B. Color
- C. Race
- D. National Origin
Which of the following statements is true about quid pro quo sexual harassment?
- A. It can be exacted by any employee on any other employee.
- B. It creates a hostile work environment that can ultimately lead to constructive discharge.
- C. It creates a situation in which an employee’s terms and conditions of employment are affected by acceptance or rejection of sexual advances.
- D. It cannot occur during the preemployment selection process because it refers to tangible or economic work-related consequences that, by definition, can be experienced only by current employees.
Which of the following employers would be required to prepare formal affirmative action plans?
- A. Federal contractors who receive federal grants of any amount
- B. Federal contractors with $50,000 or more in federal contracts
- C. Federal contractors with at least 50 employees who have federal contracts of at least $50,000 per year
- D. All federal contractors, regardless of the size or scope of the contract
In the event of a mass layoff or plant closing, WARNA requires employers to notify all the following individuals or entities except
- A. Affected employees or their representatives (such as a collective bargaining unit)
- B. The State Dislocated Worker Unit
- C. The appropriate local government unit
- D. The EEOC, which will conduct an adverse impact analysis before layoffs are implemented
A defining Supreme Court case for interpreting the Civil Rights Act of 1991 was
- A. Kolstad v. American Dental Association, 1991
- B. Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger, 2003
- C. St. Mary’s Honor Center v. Hicks, 1993
- D. United Steelworkers v. Weber, 1979
A manager with whom you have not previously worked comes to you for help with implementing two different solutions she has come up with to fix a turnover problem in her department. This manager is highly regarded—and highly visible—in the organization. You are eager to perform well on this project because you are confident it will help you strengthen your relationship with her. You are also certain that the manager will tell her peers about her experience with you, which makes it particularly critical that you handle yourself well. Your first response should be to
- A. Communicate your commitment to implementing the manager’s solutions.
- B. Offer alternative solutions based on experience you have had with similar situations.
- C. Ask questions to obtain more information about the problems the manager is experiencing.
- D. Ask questions to obtain information that will help you implement the manager’s solution more effectively.
A properly conducted job analysis will produce all of the following except:
- A. Job competencies
- B. Job postings
- C. Job specifications
- D. Job description
Which of the following is not one of the main elements in a job description?
- A. Scope information
- B. Physical work conditions and physical demands
- C. Compensation rates
- D. Minimum requirements
Which of the following would be least likely to be considered a job competency?
- A. Communication skills
- B. Reading skills
- C. Teamwork skills
- D. Interpersonal skills
All of the following represent benefits of employee referral programs except
- A. Highly cost-effective recruiting
- B. Employees who are more likely to succeed
- C. Demonstration of good faith efforts to remedy underutilization
- D. Increased candidate familiarity with the organization
Answers to Review Questions
Directive interviews take a more structured approach. The interviewer(s) asks the same questions of all candidates and maintains control of the interview. Conversely, nondirective interviews are more conversational and relatively unstructured. In a nondirective interview, the candidate—not the interviewer—ends up controlling the interview and primarily determines what will be discussed.
Generally speaking, a directive style is more effective and appropriate than a nondirective style because it yields more consistent results, facilitates the process of comparing candidates to the job requirements and to each other, and generally provides greater defensibility in the event of a legal challenge. Although the directive approach is the better one, the interview must still remain dynamic and interactive.
- Before choosing to rely solely on employees’ prior performance ratings to determine who should be laid off and who should be retained, the organization needs to carefully examine its performance appraisal system and assess its validity and overall worth. The system itself could be flawed, or—even if it is sound—there could be problems with the way in which individual raters have applied it over time. Either factor could result in misguided assessments, which could consequently diminish the legitimacy (and defensibility) of layoff decisions made on the basis of employees’ past performance.
At the beginning of the interview—perhaps at the end of the formal “rapport- building” process—let the candidate know that you will be taking notes. The candidate may otherwise assume that she has said something wrong the minute your pen hits the paper. Letting the candidate know you will be taking notes can actually constitute another element of rapport- building: you are interested in and care about what she is going to tell you and want to be certain that you remember it correctly.
Note taking should not interfere in any way with the interview process. It also should not diminish the personal connectedness that the interviewer establishes with the candidate during the initial rapport- building portion of the interview. Jotting down key words and phrases that the candidate offers in response to the interviewer’s questions will help the interviewer remember the candidate’s responses after the interview is over. Interviewers can then go back after the interview is done and “flesh out” more details around each of the candidate’s answers.
Sexual harassment that manifests itself as a hostile work environment exists when unwelcome sexual conduct unreasonably interferes with an employee’s job performance or creates a hostile, intimidating, or offensive work environment. A hostile work environment can be found to exist whether or not the employee experiences (or runs the risk of experiencing) tangible or economic work-related consequences.
Hostile work environment harassment is unrelated to any decisions that are made relative to the employee’s employment. As such, hostile work environments can be created by virtually anyone with whom an employee might come in contact in the workplace or “workspace.”
According to WARNA, a “mass layoff” occurs under the following sets of circumstances:
Mass layoff: A covered employer must give notice if there is to be a mass layoff that does not result from a plant closing but that will result in an employment loss at the employment site during any 30-day period for 500 or more employees, or for 50–499 employees if they make up at least 33% of the employer’s active workforce. Again, this does not count employees who have worked less than 6 months in the past 12 months or employees who work an average of less than 20 hours a week for that employer. These latter groups, however, are entitled to notice.
An employer also must give notice if the number of employment losses that occur during a 30-day period fails to meet the threshold requirements of a plant closing or mass layoff, but the number of employment losses for 2 or more groups of workers, each of which is less than the minimum number needed to trigger notice, reaches the threshold level, during any 90-day period, of either a plant closing or mass layoff. Job losses within any 90-day period will count toward WARNA threshold levels unless the employer demonstrates that the employment losses during the 90-day period are the result of separate and distinct actions and causes.
WARNA defines a “plant closing” as follows:
- Plant closing: A covered employer must give notice if an employment site (or one or more facilities or operating units within an employment site) will be shut down, and the shutdown will result in an employment loss (as defined later) for 50 or more employees during any 30-day period. This does not count employees who have worked less than 6 months in the past 12 months or employees who work an average of less than 20 hours a week for that employer. These latter groups, however, are entitled to notice.
Answers to Exercises
- Answer D is the best answer. A well-structured exit interview process, however, can provide a one-time opportunity to glean information that might otherwise remain unspoken (at least to anyone within the organization who can actually use it in a productive manner). Answer A is not the best answer; the exit interview process will fail if it is used as a deterrent for management misbehavior, or in a threatening manner. Answer B is not the best answer; comments that an employee makes during exit interviews should be “sanitized” and should not be attributable to him or her. Answer C is not the best answer; to be truly informative and effective, exit interviews should focus primarily on facts, not feelings.
- Answer C is the best answer. Weather is a safe topic of discussion, and you can be relatively certain that the candidate has some awareness of it. If you work in a windowless workspace, or if you haven’t had a chance to go outside for a while, asking about the weather affords the candidate the opportunity to “update” you on something that is relevant to both of you. Also, when spoken about in an animated manner, even the weather can help to “break the ice” with a candidate. Answer A is not the best answer; interviewers should not discuss any factors that are not job related (the weather, of course, is an exception to this)—including hobbies and interests. You never know what information candidates might reveal about themselves as they speak about their hobbies or interests, and it’s much easier to avoid this discussion than to have to deal with unwanted information that the candidate has disclosed. Such discussions can also get the interview off track. Answer B is not the best answer; positioning photos of family members in visible locations is equivalent to discussing your own family, which is akin to nonverbally inviting the candidate to self-discuss about his or her own family. Answer D is not the best answer; discussing any prominent current event is likely to lead to issues that relate to politics, religion, personal beliefs, or a host of other topics that should not be discussed during an interview. Additionally, there is no way to be certain that a candidate is aware of the event that you bring up—no matter how prominent you think it is. And, even if the candidate is aware of the event, he or she may have no interest in or knowledge of it. This can result in increasing—rather than decreasing—the candidate’s anxiety level.
- Answer D is the best answer. Reaching out to professional organizations that are likely to include women as members would likely constitute a good-faith effort at addressing underutilization by creating a more diverse pool of candidates. Answer A is not the best answer; trying to convince women or minorities to change job groups is not an appropriate way to address underutilization. Answer B is not the best answer; that approach as described would constitute sex discrimination. It could also result in hiring less qualified (or unqualified individuals), simply because those individuals happen to be women. Answer C is not the best answer; underutilization cannot simply be ignored. Additionally, although it is appropriate (and advisable) to hire qualified—and ideally the best qualified—candidates, an organization with a legally mandated Affirmative Action Plan has the obligation to make good-faith efforts to create a pool of qualified candidates that includes women or minorities for those job groups in which there is current underutilization.
- Answer A is the best answer. Sending new hires a list of acceptable documents along with their offer letter gives them ample time to pull together the required materials. It also reaffirms that a wide range of documents is acceptable, and that none is preferred over any other. Answer B is not the best answer; the I-9 form specifically states that the form is to be “completed and signed by employee at the time employment begins.” Answer C is not the best answer; certain portions of the I-9 must be completed by the employer. Answer D is not the best answer; the I-9 form must be completed within the first three business days of the new hire’s employment.
- Answer B is the best answer. As the interviewer, you—not the candidate—are in control of the interview. There is no need to cede that control simply because a candidate asks you to do so. Answer B also responds to the candidate’s request in a positive manner: You are not telling her “no”; instead, you are telling her “not now” (and you are managing to do so without even alluding to the word “no”). Answer A is not the best answer; it is not necessary to explain to the candidate why you have chosen to structure the interview in a particular way. Additionally, using technical terms (such as “directive interviews”) adds no value to this discussion and might even create distance between you and the candidate (distance that no amount of discussion about the weather will be able to bridge). Neither answer C nor answer D is the best answer, for a couple of reasons. First, in both instances, you have ceded control of the interview to the candidate simply because she asked you to do so. In addition, in both scenarios, you made assumptions (one could even say “sweeping judgments”) about this candidate based on a single behavior that is not necessarily reflective of how that candidate would behave in the workplace. An interview is a unique situation governed by unique “norms and mores.” There are also a lot of people who make a living giving other people advice about how they “should” behave during an interview. Sometimes, that advice just isn’t good. At other times, it encourages a candidate to behave in a markedly different manner from how he or she would act outside the interview, but it can be difficult to argue with so-called experts sometimes (especially when you need or want to find a new job). Give candidates an opportunity to understand and comply with the expectations that you have of them for your interview process, and don’t jump to conclusions too quickly.
Answers to Exam Questions
- Answer A is the best answer. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 established five protected classes: color (answer B), race (answer C), national origin (answer D), religion, and sex. Age did not become a protected class until 1967, with the passage of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA).
- Answer C is the best answer. Quid pro quo harassment occurs when an individual’s submission to or rejection of sexual advances or conduct of a sexual nature is used as the basis for employment-related decisions. Because this sort of impact can usually only be brought about by a supervisor or someone else in a position of authority in the organization, answer A is not the best answer. Answer B is not the best answer; quid pro quo harassment is a separate concept from hostile work environment harassment (although both types of harassment could potentially lead to constructive discharge). Answer D is not the best answer; either quid pro quo or hostile work environment harassment could occur during the recruiting or selection processes.
- Answer B is the best answer. Federal contractors with $50,000 or more in federal contracts would be required to prepare formal affirmative action plans. Answer A is not the best answer; Executive Order 11246 does not specifically use the awarding of federal grants as a factor that determines whether an organization needs to prepare a formal affirmative action plan. Answer C is not the best answer; this threshold refers to an organization’s obligation to file annual EEO reports, not to the organization’s obligation to prepare a formal affirmative action plan. Answer D is not the best answer; not all contractors are required to prepare formal affirmative action plans.
- Answer D is the best answer. There is no WARNA requirement to notify the EEOC of impending mass layoffs or plant closings. The organization should, however, conduct an adverse impact analysis before making any layoff decisions. Answers A, B, and C are not the best answers; each one indicates individuals or entities who are required to be notified in the event that WARNA is triggered.
- Answer A is the best answer. In Kolstad v. American Dental Association, 1991, the court ruled that punitive damages can be awarded only when the employer has acted with malice and reckless indifference to “the employee’s federally protected rights.” Answers B, C, and D each address different legal principles.
- Answer C is the best answer. HR adds value to this process by asking questions that help to ascertain the underlying problems—and that help distinguish problems from symptoms. Answer A is not the best answer; although a manager may be convinced of the true nature of a problem and what the solution should be, the manager’s assessment is not necessarily correct, so you shouldn’t unthinkingly commit to implementing it. Answer B is not the best answer for a related reason; you don’t really know what the problem is, so it is not possible to suggest a solution. Additionally, if you use this approach, you are dismissing the manager’s opinions and experience—and you risk damaging your relationship with the manager. Answer D is not the best answer; it assumes that the manager’s assessment of the problem is correct and that the proposed solution is the best possible intervention.
- Answer B is the best answer. A properly conducted job analysis will produce job competencies (answer A), job specifications (answer C), and a job description (answer D). Although information generated through the job analysis should be used to write a job posting, this is not one of the specific outputs of the job analysis process.
- Answer C is the best answer. Compensation rates are generally not included in a job description. Scope information (answer A), physical work conditions and physical demands (answer B), and minimum requirements (answer C) do constitute important parts of the job description for each position.
- Answer B is the best answer. Job competencies speak to broad categories of skills that are required to perform successfully in a particular position, department, or organization. Of the four answers, “reading skills” is least likely to be defined in this way because it is more of a discrete, observable, and measurable skill. Communication skills (answer A), teamwork skills (answer B), and interpersonal skills (answer D) are all more likely to be considered “key success factors” or “performance factors.”
- Answer C is the best answer. If underutilization exists within an organization, employee referral programs are not likely to remedy that problem. Answers A and D are not the best possible answers; “highly cost-effective recruiting” and “increased candidate familiarity with the organization” both represent benefits of employee referral programs. Answer B is not the best answer; although the employee who makes the referral may believe that the candidate whom they refer will succeed, that assessment is not necessarily accurate.
Additional Questions for Consideration/Discussion
- What impact might automated applicant tracking/selection tools have? What impact might they have on the selection process, on the HR manager’s relationship with hiring managers? Also, what might the impact be on the bottom line?
- What impact might the presence of a collective bargaining unit have on the selection process, either internal or external? If only part of the workforce is unionized, what might be some of the key similarities and differences between the selection process for unionized, and nonunionized, positions?
- How important is the presence (or absence) of typos to you—and to your organization—when screening resumes/cover letters? Would it matter whether there is one single typo, versus two or more typos? How might this/should this impact the interview process?
- Have you ever had the experience of thinking a candidate was “perfect” based on his or her cover letter/resume, and then forming a very different impression once he or she came in for an interview? Has it ever seemed as though the person who prepared that resume and cover letter might have been “abducted by aliens” and replaced by the person who was subsequently sitting in front of you during the interview? In hindsight, could you have prevented this from happening? If so, how? If not, why not?
- Would you ever end an interview early, or quickly? Under what circumstances would you choose, or not choose to do that? What might be the advantages or disadvantages of doing so?
- How can organizations ascertain whether a candidate’s “experience” will actually translate into on-the-job “expertise?”
- How does your organization respond to internal candidates who post for—but are not interviewed for—higher-level positions within the organization? How would you recommend handling these sorts of requests? And how—as an SPHR-level HR professional—would you address these gaps?
- If an internal candidate accepts a transfer or promotion, and he or she is not able to perform the new job successfully, what happens? Is that candidate afforded the opportunity to return to his or her former job? If so, are there any conditions or stipulation? If not, why not? How would you suggest handling situations such as this?
- How do you know when to stop negotiating with a candidate? Or, when extending a counteroffer to a current employee who has accepted employment elsewhere? Have you ever chosen to do this before, either personally or professionally? If so, how did you make that choice, and select that particular moment? In retrospect, would you make the same decision again? If not, why not, and what might you do differently next time?
- Sometimes, when it comes to negotiating with employees, “winning” is actually “losing” in disguise. Have you ever had an experience where this was true? If so, please describe it for us. When did you realize that your “win” was, in fact, a “loss”?
- Should new employees’ families be included in employee onboarding programs? Why or why not? If so, in what ways should they be included? Should this extend to face-to-face meetings at the workplace? What are the advantages and disadvantages of including employees’ family members—from the perspective(s) of the employee, the organization, and the family members?
- How can/should organizations measure onboarding programs? How should effectiveness be determined? If your organization doesn’t currently measure its onboarding program, based upon what you’ve learned, what measurements would you like to see instituted and why?
- Have you had opportunities to partner with hiring managers in the wake of an employee departure? If so, how have you worked with the manager—strategically—relative to developing a plan to deal with the departure?
- What role do employees’ performance appraisals play in the internal search/posting process? How relevant are they to the process, and how are they used? What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using current employees’ performance appraisals as part of this process?
- Should organizations extend counteroffers to employees who have resigned? If so, under what circumstances—and how? Last, how effective have you found counteroffers to be at retaining top performers (short term, as well as long term)?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of a seniority-based “last in/first out” method of determining who will be terminated as part of layoffs?
- What role should “security” play through the RIF process? How might that differ for a smaller layoff, as composed to a larger RIF? What are the pros and cons of enlisting the services of an external security organization during a RIF? Would “internal” security (if this department exists) play any role in this process, as well? If so, what might that look like?
- With respect to workforce planning and employment, to what degree have you been successful in demonstrating HR’s impact on the bottom line (even though HR does not generate revenue, per se)?
- Imagine that you suddenly discovered that a selection process that—while considered effective and “a favorite” among hiring managers—is clearly inconsistent in some way with the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures. How would you approach this situation? What pitfalls would you seek to avoid? What would you do if you were told that this method/technique/approach works, and to leave it alone?
Suggested Readings and Resources
- Alexander, D., & Hartman, L. (2012). Employment law for business (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Arthur, D. (2012). Recruiting, Interviewing, Selecting & Orienting New Employees (5th ed.). New York: AMACOM, American Management Association.
- Department of Justice. www.usdoj.gov.
- Department of Labor. www.dol.gov.
- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). www.eeoc.gov.
- Flynn, N. (2012). The Social Media Handbook: Policies and Best Practices to Effectively Manage Your Organization’s Social Media Presence, Posts, and Potential Risks. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
- Gibson, C. (2006). Mission-Driven Interviewing: Moving Beyond Behavior-Based Questions: Strategies for Managers & HR Professionals. Huntington, Conn.: PTI Publishing.
- Gottlieb, B., and Kelloway, E. (1998). Flexible Work Arrangements: Managing the Work- Family Boundary (1st ed.). Chichester, England: Wiley.
- Moran, J. (2014). Employment Law: New Challenges in the Business Environment (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.
- Robertson, K. (1999). Work Transformation: Planning and Implementing the New Workplace. New York: HNB Pub.
- Schweyer, A. (2004). Talent Management Systems: Best Practices in Technology Solutions for Recruitment, Retention, and Workforce Planning. Toronto, Ont.: Wiley.
- Steingold, F. (2011). The Employer’s Legal Handbook (10th ed.). Berkeley, Calif.: Nolo.
- Walsh, D. (2013). Employment Law for Human Resource Practice (4th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.