Home > Articles > Microsoft > MCSA

This chapter is from the book


The domain remains the primary organizational unit in Windows 2000. Those familiar with NT will recognize this level of organization and coordination. A domain contains various types of objects, including users, groups, printers, workstations, member servers, and domain controllers (see Figure 3.6).

Figure 3.6 Domains contain objects in a centralized administrative grouping.


User logins provide access to resources. Each account will have an associated name, logon ID, and password as well as many other optional attribute values. User logons may be directly granted permissions allowing access or restricting access to various resources and administrative rights.


Groups provide a simple method for the administration of large numbers of users. Although it may be simple to assign access rights and restrictions individually to a small number of users, this can rapidly become a significant administrative burden when 20,000 or more users are involved. Assigning access and administrative rights to groups, and making users members of these groups, allows users to inherit the access permissions assigned to those groups of which they are members.

For example, in order to change the access rights of a user promoted from Sales to an executive office, the administrator need do nothing more than make the user a member of the Executive group and remove her membership from the Sales group. Changing individually assigned permissions is no longer necessary, which eases the administrative burden in a large deployment.

Considerations for the use of groups in order to provide access and administrative rights inheritance are provided later in Chapter 6.


Other object accounts may be created within the catalog including printers, workstations, and servers. The Active Directory database may contain references to objects. Attributes assigned to these object references may allow them to be more easily located, accounted for, or organized in large deployment scenarios.

Member Servers

Member servers are computers running software designed to provide centralized services to distributed users and workstations, but which do not participate in login authentication as do domain controllers. Member servers have local user accounts and may be used when resource access is desired without the use of domain-level account permissions.

Organizational Units

Windows 2000 introduces a new subdomain grouping category: the organizational unit (OU). Objects may be grouped into organizational units, and administrative rights over those objects may be granted to users or groups that do not require full domain administrative rights. Organizational units may also be grouped within one another, allowing many levels of administrative capability to be granted, each inclusive of those organizational units under its level of authority.

Organizational units may be created that more closely match the administrative structure of a business model. For example, an admin can group users, printers, and computers within the Sales department into one organizational unit. Users, printers, and computers within the Human Resources department may then be grouped into another organizational unit, with separate access rights appropriate to its separate requirements (see Figure 3.7).

Figure 3.7 Organizational units allow objects to be grouped to match a business model.

Unlike a Domain Administrator account, a user account granted administrative rights over the Sales organizational unit would have no inherent rights over the Human Resources organizational unit. If there were nested organizational units for the Conflict Management and Employee Retention subdepartments within the Human Resources organizational unit, the administrator over the Human Resources department would also have administrative rights over both nested organizational units as well. However, a user account granted administrative rights over the Employee Retention organizational unit would not have any inherent rights over the Conflict Management nor parent Human Resources organizational units.

Configuration settings and software deployment may also be enacted based on organizational unit membership using Group Policy Object (GPO) assignment, which will be discussed in detail in Chapter 7.


The Windows 2000 active directory allows for nested domains as well. Often, it is useful to separate domains based on separate business requirements such as internationally deployed corporate offices. In this case, the root (or top-level) domain might be mycorp.com, which has child domains of europe.mycorp.com, asia.mycorp.com, and australia.mycorp.com. Additional child domains may be created beneath existing domains, allowing extensible subordination of domain administration to whatever degree is required. In this way, the child domain europe.mycorp.com may function as the parent to the second-level child domains germany.europe.mycorp.com and denmark.europe.mycorp.com.

A hierarchical collection of parent/child domains with a contiguous namespace (one in which all child domains contain the full name of their parent domain) is referred to as a tree. Figure 3.8 illustrates a tree for the mycorp.com domain namespace.

Figure 3.8 Tree diagram for mycorp.com.


The first domain installed will form the root domain for a tree. No parents may be added to existing domains, only children.


It is occasionally useful to link multiple trees into larger administrative groupings. This is often done when it is necessary to maintain separate legal holdings, or after a merger of two corporations has occurred and migration to a single tree has not yet been accomplished. Multiple trees joined by full two-way transitive trusts create a larger grouping called a forest.

Forests may be identified by the lack of a continuous namespace such as is found within a tree. A forest may contain the trees whose root domains are mycorp.com and newcorp.com (see Figure 3.9).

Figure 3.9 Forest diagram for trees mycorp.com and newcorp.com.

Pearson IT Certification Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Pearson IT Certification and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Pearson IT Certification products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Adobe Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.pearsonitcertification.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020