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This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Apply Your Knowledge


3.1 Create Security Principles

This exercise helps you develop core security principles. Security principles comprise the foundation for protecting your organization and its equipment, buildings, and other assets.

Estimated Time: 20 minutes

  1. Write three issues that you feel will be suitable for your organization's list of security principles.

  2. Keep in mind the key principles outlined at the beginning of this chapter. Create each principle, including a brief description of what it will accomplish. Under each point, detail briefly why this is a principle for the organization.

3.2 Create a Basic Security Policy

This exercise helps you create a basic security policy using the eight topics and other policy information discussed in this chapter.

Estimated Time: 60 minutes

  1. Create a basic security policy that meets the needs of the Randall Germ Research company. Remember, a good security policy borrows from different ideas and policies.

    • The company's users have never experienced strict security measures.

    • The company performs medical research and develops pharmaceuticals using substantial sensitive data onsite.

    • The company has more than 1,000 users in one location divided into several departments.

  2. Outline the steps you would follow to implement this security policy for Randall Germ Research.

3.3 Create a Security Checklist for Windows 2000 Server

In this exercise, you create a basic security checklist for a Windows 2000 Server system. Security checklists verify the components you should have and procedures you should follow when you initially configure and later update a server or other hardware and software in your organization. For this exercise, you will need access to a computer running Windows 2000 Server.

Estimated Time: 45 minutes

  1. Create a security checklist that includes only the most basic configuration information, such as version of the operating system, service packs, and other software installed on the server.

  2. Create an additional security checklist for a Windows 2000 Server system based on the larger security checklist outlined in this chapter. Active services and IIS5 information is not required for this checklist.

  3. Optionally, if you have Internet access, browse through the links in the "Working with Security Checklists" section of this chapter. Then, create a third security checklist based on your findings.

Review Questions

  1. What are the three main principles that govern computer security?

  2. Under which topic heading in your security policy do you outline who and what is covered in the policy?

  3. Why is change control important?

  4. In addition to creating your own custom security checklists, what other checklists can you use to monitor or improve security?

  5. What are the three main topics of information the sample Microsoft checklist covers?

Exam Questions

  1. Which of the following concerns could dictate how your security principles are formed? (Choose all that apply.)

    1. Geographic location

    2. Employee fair use policies

    3. Users resistant to change

    4. Budgetary concerns

  2. Which of the following is the most common mistake that most companies make regarding security?

    1. Wait until there has been an intrusion to implement security.

    2. Entrust security to inexperienced or poorly trained staff.

    3. Install security software that is not up to the task.

    4. Entrust security to known hackers.

  3. An effective security policy balances security and _______________ for users on your network.

    1. Intrusion detection

    2. Anonymity

    3. Usability

    4. Planning

  4. Often, the biggest stumbling block when trying to implement security policies in your organization is (are) _______________.

    1. Existing security issues

    2. Budgetary funding

    3. A lack of time to implement

    4. Uneducated users

  5. Complete the following risk assessment equation: Risk = _______________ x Vulnerability.

    1. Frequency

    2. Duration

    3. Threat

    4. Probability

  6. What is the first step in the change control process?

    1. Create a Change Order

    2. File a Pending Change Request

    3. Complete Internal Checks

    4. Revise the Documentation

  7. Which of the following are components of the "AAA" cornerstone of security? (Choose three.)

    1. Accounting

    2. Authentication

    3. Administration

    4. Access Control

  8. What type of access control system utilizes security classifications?

    1. Mandatory Access Control

    2. Discretionary Access Control

    3. Role-Based Access Control

    4. Rule-Based Access Control

  9. Which one of the following security procedures tracks user activity to detect misuse?

    1. Auditing

    2. Accounting

    3. Authentication

    4. Access control

  10. What type of security policy defines security requirements for third-party organizations that seek to access organizational networks?

    1. Acceptable Use Policy

    2. Extranet Policy

    3. Internal Lab Security Policy

    4. VPN Security Policy

  11. Which one of the following security policies delegates authority and defines responsibilities for an information security team to conduct risk assessments?

    1. Antivirus Policy

    2. ASP Policy

    3. Audit Policy

    4. Extranet Policy

  12. What term describes the potential for loss or harm?

    1. Risk

    2. Threat

    3. Vulnerability

    4. Value

  13. What type of risk management procedure are you using when you purchase insurance?

    1. Eliminate the risk

    2. Minimize the risk

    3. Accept the risk

    4. Transfer the risk

  14. Which of the following are benefits of using both security-testing checklists and security configuration checklists? (Choose three.)

    1. allow for the most up-to-date methodology and techniques for configuring software for security.

    2. Third-party checklists are always more detailed than checklists that you generate.

    3. Help force you to keep up to date with the latest security findings and patches.

    4. Allow you to save time by helping you focus your energies and attention.

  15. What data classification criterion is used to protect trade secret information?

    1. Sensitivity

    2. Proprietariness

    3. Privacy

    4. Potential liability

Answers to Review Questions

  1. The three main principles that govern computer security are access control, authentication, and accounting. See the "AAA Overview: Access Control, Authentication, and Accounting" section of this chapter for further details.

  2. The risk assessment section of a security policy is typically where resources or assets worth protecting are documented. By definition, these must be covered in the policy. In the job roles or classification section, you indicate what kinds of personnel are permitted access to such resources, and what kinds of access they must be allowed to obtain. See the "Risk Assessment" section of this chapter for further details.

  3. A change control policy ensures that any modifications to the organization's security policy are made with the concurrence of all involved parties. It prevents "spur-of-the-moment" changes that detract from the overall effectiveness of the policy. This topic is discussed in the portion of this chapter titled "The Importance of Change Management."

  4. Numerous standard or vendor-supplied checklists are available for operating systems, networks, applications, and services. Likewise, numerous security organizations also offer security checklists helpful for monitoring or improving system and network security. This is covered in the "Working with Security Checklists" section of this chapter.

  5. Among the many categories and items found in the sample Microsoft checklist, you'll find server-configuration data, an installed services log, and details relevant to the server's network configuration. You'll find the sample checklist in the "Working with Security Checklists" portion of this chapter.

Answers to Exam Questions

  1. A, B, C, D. All of these concerns are vital to a solid security platform. More information can be found in the "Building a Security Policy" section of this chapter.

  2. A. Companies should always implement security policies as a proactive measure. This is discussed in the "Understanding Security Policies" section of this chapter.

  3. C. Security policies that prevent normal use of a network will be subverted. This is discussed in the "Understanding Security Policies" section of this chapter.

  4. D. For a security policy to succeed, users must understand the policy itself and the reasoning behind it. This is discussed in the "Educate Users" sidebar.

  5. C. The fundamental equation of risk assessment is Risk = Threat x Vulnerability. This is discussed in the "Definition of Risks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities" section of this chapter.

  6. B. Pending change requests are used to initiate the change control process. This is discussed in the "The Importance of Change Management" section of this chapter.

  7. A, B, D. Access control, authentication, and accounting make up the "AAA" triad. This is discussed in the "AAA Overview: Access Control, Authentication, and Accounting" section of this chapter.

  8. A. Mandatory Access Control (or MAC) systems utilize security classifications such as "Top Secret" to determine the security measures applied to data. This is discussed in the "Mandatory Access Control (MAC)" section of this chapter.

  9. A. Auditing tracks user activity on a system to detect misuse, whereas accounting tracks usage on a cost basis. This is discussed in the "Accounting" section of this chapter.

  10. B. Extranet security policies define security requirements for third-party organizations that seek to access organizational networks. This is discussed in the "Security Policy Examples" section of this chapter.

  11. C. Audit policies delegate authority and define responsibilities for an information security team to conduct risk assessments and audits, to investigate security incidents, to enforce compliance with security policy, and to monitor system/user/ network activity as appropriate. This is discussed in the "Security Policy Examples" section of this chapter.

  12. A. Risks are the potential for loss or harm. This term is defined in the "Definition of Risks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities" section of this chapter.

  13. D. Insurance policies transfer the risk from you to your insurance company. This is discussed in the "Determining the Impact of a Risk" section of this chapter.

  14. A, C, D. Combining customized and vendor-approved checklists provides a robust security solution. This is discussed in the "Understanding Security Checklists" section of this chapter.

  15. B. Trade secrets should be classified because of their proprietary nature. This is discussed in the "Why Data Classification Is Important" section of this chapter.

Suggested Readings and Resources

  1. Andress, Mandy: "Security Policies and Procedures," Surviving Security: How to Integrate People, Process, and Technology, Sams, 2002, ISBN: 0672321297.

  2. Wood, Charles Cresson: Information Security Policies Made Easy, Baseline Software, 2001. ISBN: 1881585077.

  3. "Information Technology Security Policy," describes and details security concepts, domains, and policy documents, http://wwwits2.murdoch.edu.au/security/policy.html.

  4. "Information Technology—Code of practice for Information Security Management," order information for ISO Std 17799, http://www.iso.org/iso/en/CatalogueDetailPage.CatalogueDetail?CSNUMBER=33441&ICS1=35&ICS2=40&ICS3=.

  5. "Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation," defines a framework for assessing security risks; not coincidentally, it also provides good information for building security policy documents, http://www.sei.cmu.edu/publications/documents/99.reports/99tr017/99tr017abstract.html.

  6. "Security Policies," a collection of related documents, resources, and examples on the topic, http://security.ucdavis.edu/policies/overall.html.

  7. "Security Policies, Guidelines, and Regulations," documents the NIH Center for Information Technology's body of knowledge on security policy, http://irm.cit.nih.gov/security/sec_policy.html.

  8. "Security Policy Process," provides detailed coverage and examples of security policy documents, including examples cited in this chapter, http://www.sans.org/newlook/resources/policies/policies.htm#template.

  9. "Xforce Professional Security Services," describes Internet Security Service's ability to help formulate and maintain security policy documents, http://www.iss.net/products_services/professional_services.

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