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Process Text Streams Using Filters

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This sample chapter from CompTIA Linux+/LPIC-1 Portable Command Guide provides information and commands on a variety of topics including cat, cut, expand, fmt, head, join, less, nl, od, paste, and more.

This chapter is from the book

This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:

  • cat

  • cut

  • expand

  • fmt

  • head

  • join

  • less

  • nl

  • od

  • paste

  • pr

  • sed

  • sort

  • split

  • tail

  • tr

  • unexpand

  • uniq

  • wc


The cat command displays the contents of text files. Important options include the following:

Option Description
-A Same as -vET.
-e Same as -vE.
-E Displays a $ character at the end of each line (used to see trailing whitespace characters).
-n Numbers all lines of output.
-s Converts multiple blank lines into a single blank line.
-T Displays “^I” characters for each tab character (used to see spaces instead of tabs).
-v Displays “unprintable” characters (such as control characters).
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