Home > Articles

This chapter is from the book


The security settings on a vSwitch are probably one of the most misunderstood portions of a vSwitch configuration. There are three settings available for tuning: promiscuous mode, MAC address changes, and forged transmits, as shown in Figure 8.2.

Figure 8.2

Figure 8.2 Security settings on a vSwitch

Promiscuous Mode

If you think back to when we covered physical switching, you’ll probably recall that one major advantage to it is that we have the ability to switch traffic directly to a single destination MAC address. Unless the traffic is being flooded, broadcast, or specifically intended for a destination, devices on the network do not “see” the other traffic floating across the switch. This is great for most use cases as it provides for greater scalability and improved performance of the network, and is the default behavior on a standard vSwitch.

There are some situations where we really do want a VM to see traffic that is intended for another device. Imagine having some sort of network monitoring VM that needs to sniff traffic. This is where Promiscuous Mode comes in handy. By setting it to Accept, we are ordering the vSwitch to share traffic on each VLAN among other VMs on the same VLAN.

MAC Address Changes

The idea of MAC Address Changes tends to confuse a lot of people, so we’ll go deep into this one. First, what exactly is a MAC Address Change from a vSwitch perspective? To understand this, you must first know more about how the switch keeps track of MAC addresses for VMs.

To begin with, every VM has three different types of MAC addresses: the Initial, Effective, and Runtime MAC addresses:

  • The Initial MAC address is configured on the virtual network adapter inside the VM. This is something you either let vSphere decide for you when the virtual NIC is created or manually set yourself by changing that vSphere-provided value. It is very similar to a physical NIC’s burned-in address (BIA).
  • The Effective MAC address is configured within the VM by the guest operating system (OS). Typically, the guest OS just uses the Initial MAC address, much like your PC will by default use the BIA or your NIC.
  • The Runtime MAC address is the actual live address that is being seen by the vSwitch port.

Figure 8.3 shows the Runtime MAC address of a VM in the vSphere Web Client.

Figure 8.3

Figure 8.3 The Runtime MAC address of a VM

So, now that you’re a MAC address expert, let’s go back in and discuss how the vSwitch polices MAC Address Changes.

When set to “Accept,” the vSwitch allows the Initial MAC address to differ from the Effective MAC address, meaning the guest OS has been allowed to change the MAC address for itself. Typically, we don’t want this to happen as a malicious user could try to impersonate another VM by using the same MAC address, but there are use cases, such as with Microsoft Network Load Balancing (NLB) where it makes sense.

When set to “Reject,” the vSwitch will disable the port if it sees that the guest OS is trying to change the Effective MAC address to something other than the Initial MAC address. The port will no longer receive traffic until you either change the security policy or make sure that the Effective MAC address is the same value as the Initial MAC address.

To sum it up, the MAC Address Changes policy is focused entirely on whether or not a VM (or even a VMkernel port) is allowed to change the MAC address it uses for receiving traffic. The next section covers sending traffic.

Forged Transmits

Very similar to the MAC Address Changes policy, the Forged Transmits policy is concerned with MAC Address Changes, but only as it concerns transmitting traffic.

If set to “Accept,” the VM can put in any MAC address it wishes into the “source address” field of a Layer 2 frame. The vSwitch port will just happily let those frames move along to their destination.

If the policy is set to “Reject,” the port will interrogate all the traffic that is generated by the VM. The policy will check to see if the source MAC address field has been tampered with. As long as the source MAC field is the same as the Effective MAC address, the frame is allowed by the port. However, if it finds a non-matching MAC address, the frame is dropped.

It’s very common to see issues with the Forged Transmit policy when doing nested virtualization. Nesting is the term used to describe running the ESXi hypervisor inside a VM, which then runs other nested VMs with their own unique MAC addresses. The many different MAC addresses will be seen by the port used by the nested hypervisor VM because the nested guest VMs are sending traffic. In this case, you would have to configure the policy for Forged Transmits to Accept.

Figure 8.4 illustrates this process.

Figure 8.4

Figure 8.4 Nested VMs cannot send traffic without accepting forged transmits

Pearson IT Certification Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Pearson IT Certification and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Pearson IT Certification products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Adobe Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.pearsonitcertification.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020