Home > Articles > Professional Certifications > NCLEX-RN

This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Infectious Disorders of the Lower Respiratory Tract

Infectious disorders of the lower respiratory tract refers to diseases affecting the lungs. Pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis represent two major infectious disorders of the lower respiratory tract.


Pneumonia is an inflammation of the parenchyma of the lungs caused by any number of organisms that include bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Community-acquired pneumonias include streptococcal pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, Legionnaires' disease, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral pneumonia, and chlamydial pneumonia. Hospital-acquired pneumonias include Pseudomonas pneumonia, staphylococcal pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), and fungal pneumonia.

Presenting symptoms depend on the causative organism. The client with viral pneumonia tends to have milder symptoms, whereas the client with bacterial pneumonia might have chills and fever as high as 103°. Clients with cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis carinii, or aspergillus will be acutely ill. General symptoms of pneumonia include

  • Hypoxia
  • Tachypnea
  • Tachycardia
  • Chest pain
  • Malaise
  • Fever
  • Confusion (particularly in the elderly)

Care of the client with pneumonia depends on the causative organism. The management of bacterial pneumonias includes antibiotics, antitussives, antipyretics, and oxygen. Antibiotics that might be ordered include penicillin G, tetracycline, gentamicin, and erythromycin. Viral pneumonias do not respond to antimicrobial therapy but are treated with antiviral therapy. Fungal pneumonias are treated with antifungal therapy. Tables 5.2 and 5.3 at the end of the chapter provide examples of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonias as well as drugs used to treat them.

Additional therapies for the client with pneumonia include providing for fluid and nutritional needs, obtaining frequent vital signs, and providing oral hygiene. Supplemental oxygen and chest percussion and drainage should be performed as ordered by the physician.

Oxygen Therapy

The goal of oxygen therapy is to provide adequate levels of oxygen to blood while decreasing the workload of the heart and lungs. As with other medications, a physician's order is required when administering oxygen, except in emergency situations when failure to do so would result in injury or death of the client.

Oxygen delivery systems are classified as low flow or high flow. Low-flow systems provide supplemental oxygen while the client continues to breathe some room air. Examples of low-flow systems are nasal cannula, simple mask, and rebreather masks. Nasal cannulas are capable of providing 1–6 liters of oxygen per minute. Masks are capable of providing 6–12 liters of oxygen per minute. Venturi and aerosol masks are examples of high-flow systems, which are capable of delivering 4–10 liters of oxygen per minute. Oxygen flow rates are prescribed by the physician according to the client's condition and oxygen requirements. Figure 5.2 illustrates a Venturi mask as well as nasal cannula.

Figure 5.2

Figure 5.2 Examples of oxygen delivery systems.

The nurse should observe the client's response to oxygen therapy as well as watching for signs of oxygen toxicity. Signs of oxygen toxicity include substernal discomfort, paresthesias, dyspnea, restlessness, fatigue, malaise, and progressive respiratory difficulty.

Chest Physiotherapy

Chest physiotherapy that includes percussion, vibration, and postural drainage is used to remove bronchial secretions and improve oxygenation. The nurse should assess the client for any conditions, such as recent thoracic surgery, that would contraindicate the use of chest physiotherapy.

Auscultation of the chest before and after the procedure is carried out to determine the effectiveness of treatment. A towel placed over the client's chest will make the client more comfortable during percussion. Using cupped hands, the nurse strikes the client's chest in a rhythmical fashion for 3–5 minutes for each lung segment. As the client exhales, manual vibration or tremor might be used to help loosen secretions. Figure 5.3 illustrates chest percussion and drainage.

Figure 5.3

Figure 5.3 Chest percussion and postural drainage for sides (lower lobes) and back (upper lobes).


Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by the mycobacterium tuberculosis. The organism is transmitted by droplets from the respiratory tract. The incidence of TB has been steadily increasing in the United States and world wide for the past twenty years. Risk factors include living in overcrowded conditions, being immune compromised, and age. Duration of exposure affects transmission.

Symptoms of TB are varied. Some clients might have no symptoms; others might complain of fever (particularly in the afternoon), weight loss, anorexia, indigestion, cough that becomes productive, night sweats, shortness of breath, and changes in lung sounds. Sites most commonly affected by TB include the lungs, cervical lymph nodes, kidney, and spine.

Methods used for tuberculosis testing include the intradermal PPD (Mantoux) test and the multiple puncture (tine) test. The multiple puncture test is less accurate than the PPD test; therefore, it is used less often. The PPD (Mantoux) is performed by injecting 0.1 mL of PPD intradermally in the inner aspect of the forearm. The test is read within 48–72 hours with notation of induration, not redness. Indurations of 0 mm–4 mm are generally considered negative, whereas indurations of 5 mm–9 mm indicate questionable exposure. Indurations of 5 mm–9 mm are considered positive for those in close contact with a client with TB, those with HIV or who are immunocompromised, and in those who have an abnormal chest x-ray. Indurations of 10 mm–15 mm are considered positive for those born in a country where TB is prevalent; those who are intravenous drug users; residents of long-term care facilities, homeless shelters, or correctional facilities; and those with medical conditions such as malnutrition and diabetes.

Indurations greater than 15 mm are considered to be positive for all. Positive test results indicate exposure and infection, but not necessarily active disease. An induration of 5 mm is the cut-off for organ transplant recipients and other immunosuppressed clients treated with prednisone or TNF antagonists. (CDC, 2005) Persons who have had a positive skin test will always have a positive skin test, therefore they should be screened with a chest x-ray as needed to detect clinically active TB.

Positive skin tests can be measured accurately for up to seven days. Negative reactions can be measured accurately for only 72 hours. Factors that can cause false positive TB skin test include nontuberculous mycobacterium and inoculation with BCG vaccine. Factors that can cause false negative TB skin test include anergy (weakened immune system), recent TB infection, age, vaccination with live viruses, overwhelming TB, and poor testing technique.

TB is confirmed by positive sputum test. Automated radiometric culture systems (Bactec) yield results in one to three weeks. Blood tests that measure and compare the amount of interferon-gamma released by blood cells in response to antigens include the Quantiferon TB test and Quantiferon Gold. Two-step testing is used to establish a baseline skin test and for adults tested periodically such as healthcare workers:

  • If the first TB skin test is read as positive, the client is considered infected.
  • If the first TB skin test is read as negative, give second TB skin test one to three weeks later. If the second TB skin test is read as positive, the client is considered infected.
  • If the second TB skin test is read as negative, the client is considered uninfected at the baseline.

Care of the client with TB includes the use of antimycobacterial drugs INH (isoniazid), Myambutol (ethambutol), Rifadin (rifampin), and streptomycin. Multiple drug therapy destroys organisms quickly and decreases the chance of developing drug-resistant organisms. Clients newly diagnosed with TB are typically treated with a regimen of four antituberulars: Rifadin(rifampin) and INH (isoniazid) are given throughout the course of treatment, and Tebrazid (pyrazinamide and Myambutol (ethambutol) are added for the first 2 months. The combination of medications reduces the treatment time to 6 months for most clients; however, clients with HIV infection are typically treated for 9 months.

Airborne precautions, which are used in the hospital setting, are not used if the client is convalescing home, however all household members need to be checked for infection. Sputum specimens are collected every 2–4 weeks. The client can return to work when he/she has three negative sputum specimens. Household contacts are generally treated with prophylactically with INH (isoniazid). Table 5.4, presented in the Key Concepts section later in the chapter, lists details about antitubercular drugs. Because of the length and intensity of treatment, the client should have the following lab studies performed before beginning therapy and on a regularly scheduled basis:

  • Alanine transaminase (ALT)
  • Aspartate transaminase (AST)
  • Bilirubin
  • Platelet count
  • Serum creatinine

Adverse effects of ethambutol include changes in visual acuity and color vision; therefore, clients should have an eye exam before beginning therapy to detect any existing problems and should report visual changes to their physician. Adverse effects of streptomycin include ototoxicity, so audiometric testing should be performed before streptomycin therapy is begun to detect problems with hearing. Changes in hearing should also be reported to the physician.


Influenza is an acute highly contagious viral infection that affects primarily the upper respiratory tract and is sometimes complicated by the development of pneumonia. Influenza is caused by one of three types of Myxovirus influenzae. Infection with one strain produces immunity to only that strain; therefore, annual immunization is needed to protect against the strain projected to be prevalent that year.

Symptoms of influenza include chills, laryngitis, sore throat, runny nose, muscle aches, headache, and fever greater than 102°. Complications associated with influenza include pneumonia, exacerbations of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and myositis. More serious complications include pericarditis and encephalitis. The elderly, children, and those with chronic illness are more likely to develop severe complications; therefore, it is recommended that these clients receive annual influenza immunization. The vaccine is given in the fall, prior to the onset of annual outbreaks that occur in the winter months. The vaccine is produced in eggs, so it should not be given to anyone who is allergic to egg protein.

Treatment of influenza is aimed at controlling symptoms and preventing complications. Bed rest and increased fluid intake are important interventions during the acute phase. Decongestant nasal sprays, antitussives with codeine, and antipyretics help make the client more comfortable. Antibiotics are indicated if the client develops bacterial pneumonia. Clients with influenza as well as nonimmunized persons who have been exposed to influenza might receive chemoprophylaxis if an outbreak occurs. Antiviral medication such as Relenza (zanamivir) and Tamiflu (oseltamivir) are used in both the prevention and treatment of influenza A and B and can be used to reduce the duration and severity of symptoms.

Symmetrel (amantadine) or Flumadine (rimantadine) are also used to prevent or decrease symptoms of the flu.

Pearson IT Certification Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Pearson IT Certification and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Pearson IT Certification products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Adobe Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.pearsonitcertification.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020