- By Patrick Regan
- Dec 7, 2009
This chapter is from the book
Answers and Explanations
- Answer: C. Professional service technicians use grounding straps to minimize the chances of electrostatic discharge (ESD) during normal computer maintenance work involving electronic devices. These antistatic devices can be placed around the wrists or ankle to ground the technician to the system being worked on. These straps release any static present on the technician's body and pass it harmlessly to ground potential. Surge protectors (Answer A) are used to protect from power surges, not ESD. Screwdrivers (Answer D) will not dissipate ESD. A terrycloth towel (Answer B) will most likely cause electrostatic discharge.
- Answer: A. Technicians protect the equipment from electrostatic discharge by using grounding strap devices that are placed around the wrists or ankles to ground the technicians to the system being worked on. These straps release any static present on a technician's body and pass it harmlessly to ground potential. It should be noted that you should not use an ESD strap when working on high-voltage equipment because a discharge from the high-voltage equipment (Answer D) could cause harm to the wearer.
- Answer: B. The ground plug on a standard power cable is the best tool for overcoming ESD problems. The ground lead prevents hazardous charge buildups in the circuitry that protects property and life. To avoid damaging static-sensitive computer devices, ground yourself by touching the power supply housing with your finger before touching any components inside the system. This technique works safely only if the power cord is attached to a grounded power outlet. The ESD wrist or ankle strap (Answer A) is to make sure you don't cause ESD while working on an electronic device. The ground plane (Answer C) and chassis ground (Answer D) will only help protect the system board, assuming the system is properly connected to a safety ground plug.
- Answer: C. ESD is short for electrostatic discharge. ESD is generated by friction and is released when two items (including the human body) that have different voltage potentials make contact, which causes electricity to transfer from one object to another. To prevent ESD, you should ground yourself before handling any electronic components. That can be done with a properly grounded ESD mat (Answer A), strap (Answer B), or metal case (Answer D). Of course using an ESD strap (wrist or angle) is the most recommended method.
- Answer: D. Wrist straps are only good if they are first plugged into the wrist strap jack, which should be grounded. It also needs to be clean and make good skin contact. Lastly, the cord needs to be undamaged.
- Answer: A and C. An ESD mat will drain excess charge much like an ESD strap does. In addition, you should touch the metal case while it is plugged into a properly grounded outlet. Touching the ground (Answer B) and taking off your shoes (Answer D) are usually not practical solutions (and shoes don't usually generate ESD).
- Answer: C. Make sure that you are grounded before opening a static-shielding container or bag and before handling any electronic devices. You should always assume electronic devices are sensitive (Answer A). You should not place paperwork inside the container because the paperwork can cause ESD (Answer B). You should call the manufacturer for operating instructions only if you need the operating instructions (Answer D).
- Answer: A. If you need to transport an electronic device, you should enclose it in a static-shielding container or bag. You should not place ESD-sensitive devices in a cardboard box (Answer B) or wrap them in newspaper (Answer D) because both the box and the newspaper can generate ESD. If you decide to clean an electronic device (Answer C), you must take special steps and use special tools to make sure you don't generate ESD.
- Answer: C. Keeping the humidity at 50% or higher will reduce the amount of ESD that is generated. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: C. ESD is most likely to occur during periods of low humidity. If the relative humidity is less than 50%, static charges can accumulate easily. ESD generally does not occur when the humidity is greater than 50%. Anytime the charge reaches about 10,000V, it is likely to discharge to grounded metal parts. Working around rubber mats (Answer A), using test equipment (Answer B), and unplugging a power supply (Answer D) should not generate damaging electrostatic discharge.
- Answer: A. The snap the customer felt was ESD, and the fact that the system does not operate indicates that damage has occurred with one of the system's integrated circuit devices. All you can do at this point is try to determine the extent of the damage and educate the customer about the causes and effects of ESD. Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) devices are sensitive to voltage spikes and static electricity discharges. The level of static electricity present on your body can be high enough to destroy the inputs of an MOS device if you touch its pins with your fingers (in practice, this level of damage might require multiple electrostatic discharges). Professional service technicians employ a number of precautionary steps when they are working on systems that might contain MOS devices. These technicians normally use a grounding strap that is placed around the wrist or ankle to ground themselves to the system being worked on. These straps release any static present on the technician's body and pass it harmlessly to ground potential.
- Answer: B. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is an electromagnetic signal released by an electronic device that might disrupt the operation and performance of another device. EMI can be generated by fluorescent lights, space heaters, industrial motors, and heavy equipment. UTP networks are susceptible to EMI, which can be caused by the motors in the ceiling fans. Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI), Answer A, and Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM), Answer D, are types of signaling. Management Information Base (MIB), Answer C, is a generic term of a database used for some applications.
- Answer: A, B, and C. Electromagnetic interference is an electromagnetic signal released by an electronic device that might disrupt the operation and performance of another device. EMI can be generated by fluorescent lights, space heaters, industrial motors, and heavy equipment. A radio (Answer D) receives radio waves and typically does not generate radio waves.
- Answers: B and C. When you have a current, you have a magnetic field, and when you have a magnetic field, you have a current. In addition, magnets, such as those found in industrial motors, can generate electromagnetic inference (EMI). Answer A—frequency division multiplexing (FDM)—and Answer D—alternate mark inversion (AMI)—are types of signaling.
- Answer: C. Electromagnetic interference is an electromagnetic signal released by an electronic device that might disrupt the operation and performance of another device. EMI can be generated by fluorescent lights, space heaters, microwaves, industrial motors, and heavy equipment. Bad memory (Answer A) causes errors in applications or prevents the computer from booting. A bad motherboard (Answer D) causes errors in applications, prevents the computer from booting, or prevents some devices from being recognized. A virus (Answer B) causes problems with the operating system and data files and might cause your computer to slow or act erratic, for example by generating pop-ups.
- Answer: C. Radio frequency interference (RFI) is unintentional broadcast of signals that interrupt a radio, television, or navigation equipment. Besides protecting the components of a PC, the case also limits the flow of RFI from the computer. The power supply (Answer A) is used to supply clean DC power to the internal components. The heat sink (Answer D) is used to keep the processor cool. The ground connector (Answer B) prevents hazardous charge buildups in the circuitry that protects property and life.
- Answer: B. 802.11g uses the 2.4 GHz range, which is also used by appliances including microwaves. Most likely, during lunch time, people use the microwaves and that interrupts the 802.11g radio signals. Replacing the WAP (Answer A), converting to ad-hoc mode (Answer C), and connecting the WAP directly to the network (Answer D) will not overcome the interference.
- Answer: B. 802.11g uses the 2.4 GHz range. If you check the wireless phone, it is also using the 2.4 GHz range. Therefore, when the wireless phone is transmitting, it is using the same frequencies as your 802.11g wireless network. Answer A, electromagnetic interference (EMI) causes interference or noise on power and data lines and can interrupt PC operations. Alternate mark inversion (AMI), Answer C, is a type of signaling. Power spikes (Answer D) are sudden surges of electricity that can damage electronic components.
- Answer: D. Remove all power cords associated with the computer and its peripherals from the power outlet during thunder or lightning storms. Sudden spikes can still damage a computer even through it is plugged into a surge protector (Answer B) and if the computer is off (Answer C), although the surge protector will protect against most spikes or surges. Of course, monitoring the computer (Answer A) will not help protect the computer.
- Answer: C. Extremely high voltage levels (in excess of 25,000V) might be present inside the CRT housing even up to a year after electrical power has been removed from the unit. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: D. The 110V AC at 5 amps is much more dangerous than the 25,000V DC at 5 microamperes according to the current-delivering capabilities (5 amps versus 5 microamperes) they create. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: C and E. Antistatic straps should never be worn while working on higher-voltage components, such as monitors and power supply units. You should wear them when working on hard drives (Answer A), system boards (Answer B), RAM, expansion cards, and printers (Answer D).
- Answer: A and D. In repair situations, the high-voltage charge associated with video displays must be discharged. This is accomplished by creating a path from the tube's high-voltage anode to the chassis. With the monitor unplugged from the commercial power outlet, clip one end of an insulated jumper wire to the chassis ground of the frame. Clip the other end to a long, flat-blade screwdriver that has a well-insulated handle. While touching only the insulated handle of the screwdriver, slide the blade of the screwdriver under the rubber cup of the anode and make contact with its metal connection. This should bleed off the high-voltage charge to ground. Continue the contact for several seconds to ensure that the voltage has been fully discharged. Note: This should only be done by an electronic technician, but if you feel that you need to open a monitor, be extra, extra careful. You should also not wear an antistatic wrist strap (Answer C) because the strap could carry the charge left inside the monitor through you. You should not have to get clearance from your supervisor (Answer B) unless your company requires such things.
- Answer: C. The laser light is a hazard to eyesight. Great care should be taken to avoid contact between the laser light and your eyes. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: A. Unlike other printer types, the laser printer tends to have several high-voltage, high-temperature, and vision hazards inside it. To get the laser printer into a position where you can observe its operation, you might need to place yourself in potential contact with those areas. Be aware that laser printers can be a source of electrocution, eye damage (from the laser), and burns (from the fuser assembly). A dot matrix printer (Answer B) does contain hot parts that can burn you if you touch them. Because all printers use electricity, even inkjet (Answer C) and daisy wheel (Answer D) printers have the capability to electrocute someone.
- Answer: D. To exchange the print head assembly, make sure that the print head assembly is cool enough to be handled. These units can get hot enough to cause a serious burn. The other components, paper tray (Answer A), platen (Answer B), and ribbon (Answer C) cannot burn you.
- Answer: D. An inverter provides AC power (wall outlet) in your car or on a plane so that you can power portal electronic devices such as laptop computers, cell phones, DVD players, MP3 players and digital cameras. An uninterruptable power supply (UPS), Answer A, is a device that provides emergency power via batteries. There is no such thing as a surge processor (Answer B) or capacitance battery (Answer C).
- Answer: A. The inverter provides AC power in your car or on a plane so that you can power portable electronic devices such as laptop computers, cell phones, DVD players, MP3 players, and digital cameras. When selecting an inverter, you must make sure it can supply enough power (wattage and amperage) to the devices that you are connecting. You should also look at the power requirements of these devices when they start up. You should not use devices with heating elements such as hair dryers or heaters because they draw far more power than an inverter can produce. Although the amount of surge protection (Answer B) and the overloading built-in circuit protection is important, you must make sure it can supply enough power to all of the devices you need. Also keep in mind that your cigarette lighter or similar device can only supply so much power, too. You should consider the number of plugs or ports (Answer C) because you should keep these to a minimum. Lastly, the number of lights (Answer D) is not important.
- Answer: A and D. An uninterruptable power supply (UPS) is a device that provides emergency power via batteries. When choosing a UPS, you must first make sure that it supplies enough power (wattage and amperage) to the devices it is powering. In addition, a UPS cannot power devices indefinitely. Therefore, you need to choose UPS with enough capacity to power its devices as needed and to be able to perform a proper shutdown when necessary.
- Answer: C. The presence of water should always be a cause of alarm and should be corrected. Therefore, you should contact whoever is responsible for building maintenance. You should then move or shutdown any servers (Answer D) or other equipment if the water can cause a problem. You should not place newspaper over the water (Answer A) because that covers it up but does not fix the problem. You should not have to wear rubber-soled shoes (Answer B). If you suspect electricity problems, you should shut off the electricity as needed before doing clean up.
- Answer: D. You should replace the power supply unit. Even if you are very good at soldering and repairing damaged cabling, the condition might have caused damage to the power supply's electronics. Also, the cost of your time to repair and test the unit might exceed the cost of installing a new unit. You should not cut a wire (Answer A), splice wires (Answer B), or cap off the wire (Answer C). These things are normally done by an electronic technician. Instead, it is better to replace the power supply because it would be safer and more cost efficient.
- Answer: C. System boards are fairly sturdy from an electrical point of view. To create a short circuit in one of them, you must get a powered trace connected to a ground trace. The only option that actually accomplishes this is plugging an adapter card into the wrong type of expansion slot and then turning on the system. Although some areas of the system board have electrical energy applied to them even when the system is turned off, the expansion slots are not one of those areas. Therefore, not removing the power cord does not cause a short to occur while the system is turned off. Wearing an antistatic wrist strap (Answer A) reduces ESD when you are working on electronic devices. Of course, ESD can damage the electronic components. PnP (Answer B) stands for plug and play, which means it automatically configures. Therefore, it will not cause a component to short out. Although it is recommended for you to unplug the power from a computer before doing maintenance (Answer D), you should not cause a system board to short out.
- Answer: B. All hazardous materials are required to have Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) that accompany them when they change hands. The MSDSs are also required to be on-hand in areas where hazardous materials are stored and commonly used. Disposal bags (Answer A) are not required for all hazardous materials. They also don't require red flags (Answer C) and On Site Disposal Facility (OSDF), Answer D, when changing hands.
- Answer: C. All hazardous materials are required to have Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) that accompany them when they change hands. They are intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with that substance in a safe manner, and includes information such as chemical name (Answer A), hazard rating (Answer B), physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point, and so on), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment, spill handling procedures, and emergency telephone number (Answer D). It does not contain safety first measures.
- Answer: C. A "C-rated" extinguisher is used for electrical fires. If you don't have a "C-rated" extinguisher that is specifically rated for electrical fires, you can use an ABC-rated extinguisher. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: C. A "C-rated" extinguisher is used for electrical fires. You can also use an ABC-rated extinguisher. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: B. Many work-related injuries occur due to improper material handling and lifting techniques. The proper technique for lifting objects is to bend at the knees and lift with your legs, keeping your back straight. In other words, lift with your legs, not with your back! Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: C. Check with your local waste management agency before disposing of them. Some landfills do not accept chemical solvents and cans. In this case, these items must be disposed of in a Subtitle-D dumpsite. You should not just throw them away in the normal trash (Answer A) or throw them in an oven (Answer D). You should never release gases into the air (Answer B).
- Answer: C. Check with your local waste management agency before disposing of them. Because batteries contain hazardous material, you should not dispose of them in a trash can (Answer D). Batteries can explode, so you should not incinerate batteries (Answer A). Although laptop batteries can be recharged (Answer B), they will eventually not hold a charge like they used to or they will not charge at all. In addition, one battery that fits in one model might not fit in another model.
- Answer: A. The desired method of disposal for batteries is recycling because they contain hazardous material. You should not dispose of them in a trash can (Answer B). Batteries can explode, so you should not incinerate batteries (Answer C). Although laptop batteries can be recharged (Answer D), they will eventually not hold a charge like they used to or will not charge at all. In addition, one battery that fits in one model might not fit in another model.
- Answer: A. Laser printer toner cartridges should be refilled and recycled. The preferable method is to return the cartridge to the original manufacturer. However, many third-party refill organizations refill toner cartridges as part of their business. Because toner is considered a hazard material, it should not be thrown in the trash (Answer B) or incinerated (Answer C). Unless the computer retailer is a recycling site (Answer A), they will not have a use for empty toner cartridges.
- Answer: B. Most computer components contain some level of hazardous substances. CRTs contain glass, metal, plastics, lead, barium, and rare earth metals. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: C. Local regulations concerning acceptable disposal methods for computer-related components should always be checked before disposing of any electronic equipment, such as a CRT display. You should never dispose of them in the normal garbage (Answer A and B) or a non-hazardous subtitle-D dumpsite (Answer D). Remember, monitors contain lead and other hazardous material.
- Answer: B and C. You need to make sure that cables are not in the way to cause a trip hazard. Therefore, you should plan your cable lengths to run in ceilings or in the walls or by using a safety strip (which will protect the cable and reduce the trip hazard). You should not have a cable off the ground because it creates an even greater trip hazard (Answer A). Wireless technology (Answer D) is not always the best solution due to radio interference, speed, or compatibility.
- Answer: A. An apology can go a long way, especially if you can help her immediately. You should not try to make excuses (Answer D), put the customer on hold, or tell the customer to call back again (Answer C). Giving the customer your home phone number (Answer B) is not acceptable because that is like telling her to call back later.
- Answer: D. As part of good customer service, you should replace the drive immediately so that you get the customer up and running as soon as possible. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: D. When dealing with customers, your success is based largely on what the customer perceives. Any time that you service a computer, you need to show that the problem is fixed and that the computer is running fine. In this scenario, the customer feels that this has not happened so you should offer to replace or re-service the computer. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: B. You should almost never hang-up on a customer, especially if the customer cannot understand what you are saying. You might need to take another approach to overcome the confusion. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: B. Assuming that you have fixed the problem, demonstrated that the problem is fixed, and answered all of the customer's questions, you should always thank the customer for their business. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: D. Restating the problem to the customer will make sure that both of you agree on what the problem is. The customer can then give more information or correct you as needed. Of course, you might need to have the customer show you the problem again if the customer doesn't agree with your statement of the problem (Answer B). You should not attempt to fix the problem until you understand what the problem actually is (Answer A). Because the customer can give you valuable information, you should not send the customer away (Answer C).
- Answer: A. You need to keep control of the call so that you stay on task. You also need to gather relevant information so that you can figure out the best course of action. You might not necessarily need to keep the customer on the line while you fix the problem, which is often not a quick fix (Answer B). Of course, although you control the call, you should let the customer explain the problem. You don't necessarily need to write down all information, but it is recommended that you record relevant information if you document your work or service calls (Answer C). The problem might not always be on the customer's computer; it might be on a server or with some network device. Therefore, you might not need to proxy in to the customer's computer (Answer D).
- Answer: A. By staying calm and not making the situation personal, you can focus on the problem. This will also prevent the issue from escalating to a higher level of anger and you might be able to calm the customer. This means you shouldn't give the customer a piece of your mind (Answer D). Of course, you want to complete the job as quickly as possible (Answer B), but not at the potential cost of making the situation worse. You should only have to report the customer to your supervisor if the problem cannot be resolved and the customer cannot be satisfied (Answer C).
- Answer: A. Active listening is a way of listening and responding to another person that improves mutual understanding. The listener listens to the speaker fully and repeats, in the listener's own words, what he or she thinks the speaker has said. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: D. When you are at a customer site, the customer needs to feel that he is important right now, and you need to stay focused on the problem about which you were called. Therefore, you need to ignore the phone call and let the voicemail answer it. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: A. Active listening allows everyone to communicate their ideas and feelings without fear that they will be persecuted or made fun of. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: A. Sometimes as an IT technician you have access to confidential information. As a professional, you need to keep the information confidential. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: D. You are trying to complete a job that might include fixing a problem that affects one or more people. While you need to be calm and professional about everything, you need to talk to the customer about having the child leave the work area so that you can complete your job. You should not try to handle the problem yourself and or give the child something to play with (Answers A and B). You need to get the job done so you should not refuse to work (Answer C).
- Answer: B. You need to let the customer know that she is important. Therefore, you need to tell your co-worker that you will call him or her back later. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: C. Most customers do not have the technical background to understand industry jargon and acronyms. If you use jargon, you will confuse the customer. Because customers do not have the technical background, you should use visual aids (Answer A), analogies, and examples (Answer B) to explain things, and you should keep the information to a minimum (Answer D).
- Answer: A, B, and D. The art of active listening involves focusing on the customer's comments, repeating key information to let the customer know that you are following what he is saying, and avoiding distractions such as visual or audible activities that draw your attention away from the customer. While making key notes (Answer C) can be useful, it is not necessary for active listening.
- Answer: A and B. One of the attributes that makes a good customer service person is the ability to actively listen to the customer. Real listening means not just hearing what the customer has to say, but trying to pin down what she means. The technique for doing this is called active listening. Using active listening involves focusing on the customer's comments, repeating key information to let the customer know that you are following what she is saying, and avoiding distractions such as visual or audible activities that draw your attention away from the customer. While personality conflicts can cause problems, you can keep the conflict to a minimum by focusing on active listening (Answer A) and focusing on the customer (Answer B).
- Answer: A. When a customer becomes angry, attempt to diffuse the situation. This usually involves letting the customer get pent-up frustrations off his chest by simply listening to him. The best thing to do is let the customer vent verbal frustrations and not reply to them. It can be very frustrating to let a customer vent without interrupting him, but that is an important part of successfully handling an irate customer. When you do reply, remain calm, speak in a steady voice, and avoid making inflammatory comments. Also try to avoid taking a defensive stance because this signals a conflict point. Realize that criticism given by a customer is generally not personal, and you should not take it personally. Information delivered with an aggressive attitude normally leads to an aggressive or retaliatory response from the customer. Restating the customer's key points (Answer B) is part of active listening. Active listening, defending your credibility (Answer C), telling him you are frustrated, and leaving (Answer D) does not help diffuse the situation.
- Answer: D. If a problem runs beyond the scope of your company's agreement with the customer, take the initiative to move it to the next level of authority. This allows your management to take proper action in deciding how the particular customer should be handled. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: D. Always notify customers as soon as possible about any appointment changes, service delays, complications, or setbacks that occur. Apologize for the inconvenience and ask how the customer would like to proceed. These things happen to everyone, and your best defenses against customer dissatisfaction are promptness and good communication. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: A. Pornographic materials on computers fall into the same category as illegal copies of programs. Having such materials on a PC is reason for immediate termination in most companies. If you are exposed to illegal software or pornographic material on a customer's computer, you should report this to your supervisor. If you discover illegal software or pornographic material on one of your company's computers, report it to the proper authority in your organization (provided you are not authorized by your company's policies to handle this situation yourself). Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: B. If the customer is too angry to work through the details with you, conclude the encounter by trying to do, or offer, something to lessen her frustration level. Make certain to follow up as promised. As soon as possible, withdraw from the confrontation and let the situation cool off. Inform your supervisor of the situation as quickly as possible so that you have inside support and so that a plan of relief can be implemented. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: A and C. Even if you know the other person's number, you should respect his right to privacy and offer to intercede between the customer and other technician. If you have the other technician's number, call it, and arrange the call between the other technician and the customer. If you don't have the number, offer to have the technician call the customer when you see him next. You don't want to give the phone number to the customer (Answer B) until you know it is OK. You should not have to lie (Answer D), and it is likely the customer would not believe you.
- Answer: B. Try never to leave customers hanging without a path to get their problems addressed. If this request cannot be performed under your company's policies, there might be nothing you can offer. However, you should always check to see whether there is some other option available. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: A. If a problem runs beyond the scope of your position or your capabilities, take the initiative to move it to the next level of authority. This is also true for requests for work to be performed that are outside your assignment or your company's agreement with the customer. Escalate the request so that management can take proper action in deciding how the particular customer should be handled. Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: A. If you discover illegal, improper, or pornographic material on one of your company's computers, report it to the proper authority in your organization (provided you are not authorized by your company's policies to handle this situation yourself). Therefore, the other answers are incorrect.
- Answer: D. The best tool for training users is typically the actual equipment or software they are expected to use. If you are coaching one or two users, it is best to pull up a chair and get to an equal level with them. This allows you to make the training more personable and less formal. Use the documentation that comes with the hardware or software as part of the training process. Point out and mark key topic areas in the documentation that you know the users will need after you're gone. However, do not read the manuals to them; this is an instant cure for insomnia and is very ineffective training. Also be careful to use language that the users can relate to. Use proper terminology. Avoid jargon or industry slang when coaching users.