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CompTIA A+ 220-701 and 220-702 Exam Cram:

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  • Copyright 2010
  • Edition: 1st
  • Premium Website
  • ISBN-10: 0-7897-4242-X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-4242-1

&>CompTIA A+ Exam Cram, Fourth Edition, is the perfect study guide to help you pass CompTIA’s newly-updated versions of the A+ exams. It provides coverage and practice questions for every exam topic. The book contains an extensive set of practice questions, including 200 printed questions in two full practice exams, while the CD-ROM test engine provides real-time practice and feedback with an additional 200 questions.

Covers the critical information you’ll need to know to score higher on your A+ exams!

  • Understand PC components, including motherboards, processors, memory, power, storage, audio, video, and I/O devices
  • Install, configure, maintain, troubleshoot, and fix desktop and notebook PC hardware
  • Install and configure Windows Vista and other Windows operating systems
  • Use Windows utilities to troubleshoot and fix operating system problems
  • Understand essential networking technologies, devices, protocols, cabling, and connections
  • Set up small office/home office networks, including Internet and Wi-Fi connections
  • Troubleshoot and fix failed client-side network connections
  • Secure computers and networks, identify security problems, and eliminate viruses and malware
  • Detect and solve the most common printing problems
  • Perform essential preventive maintenance
  • Master essential safety and operational procedures for PC technicians
  • Prepare yourself effectively for exam day

 CD Features 200 Practice Questions

  • Detailed explanations of correct and incorrect answers
  • Multiple test modes
  • Random questions and order of answers
  • Coverage of each A+ exam objective

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Table of Contents

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Target Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

About the Latest CompTIA A+ Exams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

About This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Chapter Format and Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Additional Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

The Hands-On Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Goals for This Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Exam Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

CHAPTER 1:

Introduction to Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

The Six-Step A+ Troubleshooting Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Step 1: Identify the Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Step 2: Establish a Theory of Probable Cause (Question the Obvious).  . . . 11

Step 3: Test the Theory to Determine the Cause . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Step 4: Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem

and Implement the Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Step 5: Verify Full System Functionality and if Applicable

Implement Preventative Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Step 6: Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . 13

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Troubleshooting Examples and Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Troubleshooting Example 1: Display Issue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Troubleshooting Example 2: Power Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Some More Troubleshooting Tidbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Additional Reading and Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

CHAPTER 2:

Motherboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Motherboard Components and Form Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Motherboard Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Form Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

The BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

BIOS, CMOS, and the Lithium Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

The POST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Accessing and Configuring the BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Flashing the BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Installing and Troubleshooting Motherboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Installing Motherboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Troubleshooting Motherboards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Additional Reading and Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

CHAPTER 3:

The CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

CPU 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

CPU Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Brands of CPUs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Installing and Troubleshooting CPUs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Installing CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Troubleshooting CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Additional Reading and Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

CHAPTER 4:

RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

RAM Basics and Types of RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

RAM Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Types of RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

RAM Technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Installing and Troubleshooting DRAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Installing DRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Troubleshooting DRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

CHAPTER 5:

Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Understanding and Testing Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Testing an AC Outlet with a Receptacle Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Testing an AC Outlet with a Multimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Power Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Power Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Surge Protectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Uninterruptible Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Planning Which Power Supply to Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Installing the Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

Troubleshooting Power Supply Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

Heating and Cooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

CHAPTER 6:

Storage Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

Magnetic Storage Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Hard Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Floppy Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Tape Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Optical Storage Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

Compact Disc (CD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Blu-Ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

Solid-State Storage Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

USB Flash Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

Secure Digital Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

CompactFlash Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

CHAPTER 7:

Installing and Upgrading Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

Installing and Upgrading to Windows Vista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Windows Vista Versions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Windows Vista Minimum Requirements and Compatibility. . . . . 167

Windows Vista Installation Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Installing Windows Vista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

Upgrading to Windows Vista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Verifying and Troubleshooting Windows Vista Installations . . . . 178

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

Installing and Upgrading to Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Windows XP Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Windows XP Minimum Requirements and Compatibility. . . . . . 185

Windows XP Installation Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

Installing Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Upgrading to Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

Verifying and Troubleshooting Windows XP Installations. . . . . . 192

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

CHAPTER 8:

Configuring Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

Windows User Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Windows Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Windows Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Administrative Tools and the MMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Cram Quiz Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

System Tools and Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

Managing Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

Operating System Optimization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

User Migrations and Customizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Advanced System Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

Files, File Systems, and Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Working with Files and File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Managing Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

CHAPTER 9:

Maintaining Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

Updating Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Service Packs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Windows Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

Maintaining Hard Disks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

Hard Disk Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

Using Windows XP’s NTBackup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

Creating Restore Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

CHAPTER 10:

Troubleshooting Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

Repair Environments and Boot Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

Windows Repair Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

Boot Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

Windows Tools and Errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

Troubleshooting Within Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

Stop Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

Additional Windows Errors and Error Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . 286

Restoring Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

The Six-Step Troubleshooting Process Revisited. . . . . . . . . . . . 290

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

Command-Line Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

Windows Command Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

Recovery Command Prompt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

CHAPTER 11:

Laptops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Visible Laptop

Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

Laptop 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

Input Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

Optical Discs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

Expansion Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Internal Laptop

Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

Hard Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

System Board and CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

Cram Exam Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

CHAPTER 12:

Video, Audio, and Peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

The Video Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

Video Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

Video Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

Video Settings and Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

The Audio Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

Sound cards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

Installing a Sound Card and Speakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

Audio Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367

Input/Output, Input Devices, and Peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

I/O Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

Input Devices and Peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

CHAPTER 13:

Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

Printer Types and Technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

Types of Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

Local Versus Network Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . 385

Printer Installation and Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385

Configuring Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

Troubleshooting Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

CHAPTER 14:

Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

Networking Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

Configuring IPv4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

IPv4 Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

Analyzing and Configuring the Network Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . 406

Network Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

Types of Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

Common TCP/IP Protocols and Their Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415

Network Cabling and Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419

Exam Cram Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420

Troubleshooting Network Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421

Command-Line Interface Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421

Troubleshooting with Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

Installing and Configuring a SOHO Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430

Internet and Wireless Connectivity Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430

Setting Up a SOHO Router and Wireless Network Adapters . . . 434

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441

CHAPTER 15:

Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

Basics of Data Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444

Data Sensitivity and Security Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

Usernames and Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

Smart Cards and Biometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

Malicious Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

Types of Malware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

Preventing and Troubleshooting Malware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466

Exam Cram Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

File Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468

Working with Files and Folders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468

Sharing Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480

CHAPTER 16:

Safety and Professionalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481

Safety and Environmental Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482

Electrical Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482

ESD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484

Physical Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486

MSDS and Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487

EMI and RFI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

Professionalism and Communication Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490

Cram Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

Cram Quiz Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492

Additional Reading and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493

CHAPTER 17:

Taking the Real Exams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

Getting Ready and the Exam Preparation Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

Tips for Taking the Real Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498

Beyond the CompTIA A+ Certification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501

Practice Exam 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

Answers at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524

Answers with Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525

Practice Exam 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537

Answers at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558

Answers with Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559

Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571

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Other Collection and Use of Information


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Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

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Marketing


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Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


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Sharing and Disclosure


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Links


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Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020