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250,000 readers have trusted their A+ studies to Exam Cram because this book ensures they have what they need to pass the exams. In this best-selling new edition, the chapters map exactly to the objectives for the new A+ exams (220-301, 220-302) -- released in November 2003 -- helping readers quickly and easily assess their mastery of the material. In addition, it features test-taking strategies, time-saving tips, more than 750 practice questions, and two hours of video from Scott Mueller's Upgrading & Repairing PCs Video Trainer. The book also includes the popular Cram Sheet, a tear card that highlights the essential information covered on the exam and is designed for that "last-second read" before taking the exam. To ensure our material is the most complete, up-to-date, technically accurate, and well-organized material on the market, the book goes through a stringent review process by industry experts.
A+ ExamCram 2: Memory: Types and Forms
I. A+ CORE HARDWARE EXAM.1. A+ Certification Tests.
Are You Certifiable? The A+ Certification Exams. Preparing for an Exam. Question-Handling Strategies. Mastering the Inner Game.2. Motherboards.
System Boards: A Brief History. Baby AT and ATX. Summary—Form Factors. Data Transfers—The Bus. Expansion Bus Architecture. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI). North Bridge and South Bridge. Supplementary Information. Memory Buses. PC Card (PCMCIA). Summary—Bus Architectures. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?3. Memory: Types and Forms.
Conceptual Overview. Read-Only Memory (ROM). Random Access Memory (RAM). Cycles and Frequencies. Summary—Basic Memory. Cache Memory. Memory Pages. Rambus Memory (RDRAM). Double Data Rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM). Video RAM (VRAM). Supplemental Information. Packaging Modules. Memory Diagnostics—Parity. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?4. Processor Mechanics, IRQs, and DMA.
Numbers, Symbols, and Words. Numbering Systems. CPU Manufacturing. The Address Bus. Micro Buses. Summary—How CPUs Work. Interrupt Requests (IRQs). Direct Memory Access (DMA). Port IRQs and Addresses. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?5. Processors and Chipsets.
Original Processors. Third Generation: The 32-Bit 80386. The Fourth Generation 80486, DX, SX, and SL. Summary—Original Processors. Fifth Generation: Pentium Processors. The Pentium 4. Mobile “Centrino” Technology. The Core Naming Convention. AMD. Summary—Modern Processors. Chipsets, Slots, and Sockets. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?6. Basic Electronics.
Analog Versus Digital. Basic Electricity. Circuits. Electronic Components. The Power Supply. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Supplemental Information. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?7. Peripherals: Input Devices.
Keyboards. Mice and Trackballs (Pointing Devices). Modems. Scanners. Troubleshooting Input Devices. Summary—Input Devices. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?8. Peripherals: Storage Devices.
Historic Drives. Terminology. Disk Geometry. Tracks, Cylinders, Sectors, and Clusters. Supplementary Information. Summary—Hard Disks. Floppy Disks. The ATA Specification. ATA Modes. The SCSI Specification. Tape Backup Systems. Optical Disks. Flash Memory. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?9. Peripherals: Output Devices.
Transient Versus Final Output. Video Displays. Colors: RGB and CMY. VGA. Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP). Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). Summary—Monitors. Printers. Laser Printers. Summary—Printers. Fonts. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?10. Basic Networking.
Plug 'n' Play (PnP). Chaining Devices. Universal Serial Bus (USB). IEEE-1394. Summary—Bus Transfers. Networking Overview. Categories and Types. Ethernet (IEEE-802.3). Token Ring (IEEE-802.5). Bus and Star Topology. Bridges and Routers. Summary—Network Overview. The Internet. 802.11 Wireless Networking. 802.11 Components and Structure. Fiber Optics. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?11. Cables and Connectors.
Legacy I/O Interfaces. Parallel (LPT) Ports: 8 Bits Across. Serial (COM) Ports: 1 Bit After Another. PS/2, USB, and FireWire Connectors. Back Panel Connectors. Summary—Standard Cables. Network Cables and Connectors. Twisted Pair. Summary—Network Cables. RJ-11, RJ-45, and Modular Connectors. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?Hardware Practice Exam.
The Questions. Picking the Right Answer. Confusing Questions. The Exam Framework. Beginning the Exam. Questions.Hardware Practice Exam Answer Key.
II. OPERATING SYSTEM EXAM.12. DOS.
Why Read This Part? Operating Systems. The Command Interpreter. COMMAND.COM. The Environment. The Path. DOS Commands. The DIR Command: File Searches. Summary—DOS. Logical Formatting and Partitions: FDISK. FORMAT.COM. File Systems. File Management. DEFRAG.EXE. Filenames. Summary—Disk Management. Operating Systems Versus Shells. Batch Files. Practice Exam Questions. Need to Know More?13. Booting, Startup Files, and Memory.
Booting and System Files. The CONFIG.SYS File and Directives. MSDOS.SYS. Summary—The Boot Process. Beep Codes. The Bootable Disk. 16-Bit Windows. Initialization (.INI) Files. Memory. Virtual Memory. HIMEM.SYS and EMM386.EXE. Virtual Device Drivers (VxDs). Summary—Windows Memory. An Example CONFIG.SYS File. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?14. Windows 9x.
The Windows 9x Registry. Components of the Registry. REGEDIT.EXE. Summary—Windows Registry. Installing Windows 95, 98, and Me. Installation Log Files. Virtual Device Drivers. The Installable File System (IFS) Manager. Windows Applets. Windows Me. Summary—Windows 9x. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?15. Windows NT, 2000, and XP.
A Simple History of Windows NT. Windows Versions. NT Architecture. NT Security. Accounts and Profiles. Starting Windows NT. NT Error Messages. Windows XP. Windows Product Activation (WPA). Summary—Windows NT/XP. Practice Exam Questions. Need to Know More?16. Troubleshooting.
Preparing for the Software Module. Startup Function Keys. Boot Problems. Windows Registry Files—Hives. Startup Problems. System Failures. Installation Problems. System Backup and Restore. System Maintenance. The Windows Recovery Console. System Vulnerability. Hardware Problems. Connectivity Problems. Summary—Troubleshooting. Exam Prep Questions. Need to Know More?Operating System Practice Exam.
III. APPENDIXES.Appendix A: Using the PrepLogic Practice Tests, Preview Edition Software.
Exam Simulation. Question Quality. Interface Design. Effective Learning Environment. Software Requirements. Installing PrepLogic Practice Tests, Preview Edition. Using PrepLogic Practice Tests, Preview Edition. Get More Exams. Customer Service.Appendix B: What's on the CD.
PrepLogic Practice Tests, Preview Edition.Acronym Glossary.
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