Home > Store

CompTIA A+ Cert Guide (220-701 and 220-702), 2nd Edition

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

CompTIA A+ Cert Guide (220-701 and 220-702), 2nd Edition


  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
Not for Sale



  • Master all the A+ exam topics in this comprehensive learning and preparation guide, fully updated for Windows 7
  • Gain a real-world understanding of how to apply your knowledge, and use the book as a workplace reference guide
  • Learn from the all-time best-selling author on the topic, Scott Mueller, whose Upgrading and Repairing PC series of books has sold more than 2 million copies
  • There will be instructor resources available for this title.


  • Copyright 2011
  • Edition: 2nd
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-7897-4790-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-4790-7

Learn, prepare, and practice for CompTIA A+ 220-701 and 220-702 exam success with this CompTIA Cert Guide from Pearson IT Certification, a leader in IT Certification learning and a CompTIA Authorized Platinum Partner.

Includes Coverage of Windows 7. Start-to-finish A+ preparation from the world’s #1 PC hardware expert, Scott Mueller!

Limited Time Offer: Buy CompTIA A+ 220-701 and 220-702 Cert Guide and receive a 10% off discount code for the CompTIA A+ 220-701 and 220-702 exams.  To receive your 10% off discount code:

1.         Register your product at pearsonITcertification.com/register

2.         Follow the instructions

3.         Go to your Account page and click on “Access Bonus Content”

CompTIA A+ 220-701 and 220-702 Cert Guide is a best-of-breed study guide. Best-selling authors and expert instructors Mark Soper, Scott Mueller, and David Prowse help you master all the topics you need to know to succeed on your CompTIA 220-701 and 220-702 exams and move into a successful career as an IT technician. 

  • Master every topic on both new 2011 A+ exams
  • Assess your knowledge and focus your learning
  • Get the practical workplace knowledge you need!

The CompTIA authorized study guide helps you master all the topics on the A+ exam, including

  • Essential concepts and troubleshooting principles
  • BIOS and CMOS
  • Memory types and characteristics
  • I/O ports and multimedia devices
  • Video cards and displays
  • Motherboards, CPUs, and adapter cards
  • Laptop components
  • Networking
  • Security
  • Windows 7, XP, and 2000
  • Power supplies and system cooling
  • Printers
  • Safety and environmental concerns

Test your knowledge, build your confidence, and succeed!

  • Packed with visuals to help you learn fast
  • Dozens of troubleshooting scenarios
  • Real-world A+ prep advice from experts
  • Easy-to-use exam preparation task lists
  • Do I Know This Already? quizzes help you gauge your knowledge, focus your study, and review the material


  • Detailed explanations of correct and incorrect answers
  • Multiple test modes
  • Random questions and order of answers
  • Sample videos from CompTIA A+ Cert Kit

Mark Edward Soper has taught computer troubleshooting and other technical subjects since 1992. He is the author of Sams Teach Yourself Windows 7 in 10 Minutes, Absolute Beginner’s Guide to A+ Certification, and many other titles on Windows, networking, and hardware upgrades. He is a CompTIA A+ Certified technician.

Scott Mueller is the PC industry’s most trusted, authoritative hardware expert. He has personally taught PC repair to thousands of pros and enthusiasts. His book, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, has sold more than 2.2 million copies, making him the world’s most successful PC hardware author.

David L. Prowse is a computer network specialist, author, and technical trainer. He has taught CompTIA A+, Network+, and Security+ certification courses to more than 2,000 students, both in the classroom and via the Internet. As a consultant, he installs and secures the latest in computer and networking technology. He has authored and coauthored a number of networking and computer titles for Pearson Education, including CompTIA A+ Exam Cram, Fourth Edition.

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

CompTIA A+ Cert Guide: Motherboards, Processors, and Adapter Cards


(Video) Exam Profile - CompTIA Security+ SY0-201

CompTIA A+ Cert Guide (220-701 and 220-702), 2nd Edition

CompTIA A+ Certification: Self-Study Tips and Test Analysis with Mark Soper

Sample Pages

Download the sample pages (includes Chapter 3 and Index)

Table of Contents

    Introduction xxxvi

Chapter 1 PC Technician Essentials 3

    PC Tools 3

    Preventing Electrostatic Discharge 4

    The CompTIA Six-Step Troubleshooting Process 5

    Numbering Systems Used in Computers 6

        Decimal Numbering System 6

        Binary Numbering System 6

        Binary Versus Decimal MB/GB 10

        Data Storage and Overhead 11

        Hexadecimal Numbering System 14

    Measuring Data Transfer and Frequency 14

        Bandwidth 14

        Parallel Information Transfers 15

        Serial Transfers 16

        Hertz (Hz) 17

    Important Websites 18

Chapter 2 PC Anatomy 101 21

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 22

    The Essential Parts of Any Computer 25

        Front and Rear Views of a Desktop PC 25

        All Around a Notebook (Laptop) Computer 27

        Quick Reference to PC Components 28

    Points of Failure 29

        Points of Failure on a Desktop Computer 30

        Points of Failure on a Notebook Computer 30

    Hardware, Software, and Firmware 31

        Hardware 31

        Software 31

        Firmware 32

        Why Hardware, Software, and Firmware Are Important to Understand 33

    Working Inside Your PC 33

        Opening the Case of a Desktop PC 33

        Taking ESD Precautions 34

        Connecting Internal and External Data Cables 35

        Attaching Cables to the Floppy Drive and Controller 35

        Attaching the VGA Cable to a Video Card or Port 37

        Installing a PCI Card 38

    Hardware Resources 39

Chapter 3 Motherboards, Processors, and Adapter Cards 43

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 43

    Motherboards and Their Components 47

        The System Bus and I/O Bus 48

        Form Factors 49

        ATX and Micro ATX 49

        BTX 49

        NLX 51

        Riser Cards and Daughterboards 51

        Integrated I/O Ports 52

        Memory Slots 54

        Expansion Slots 54

        PCI Slots 55

        AGP 55

        PCIe (PCI Express) Slots 56

        AMR and CNR Slots 58

        Mass Storage Interfaces 59

        PATA/IDE 60

        SATA 61

        SCSI 61

        Choosing the Best Motherboard for the Job 62

        Installing Motherboards 63

        Step-by-Step Motherboard Removal (ATX and BTX) 63

        Step-by-Step Motherboard Removal (NLX) 65

        Preparing the Motherboard for Installation (ATX/BTX) 66

        Step-by-Step Motherboard Installation (ATX/BTX) 67

        Step-by-Step Motherboard Installation (NLX) 68

        Troubleshooting Motherboards 68

        System Will Not Start 69

        Devices Connected to the Port Cluster Don’t Work 72

        Devices Connected to Header Cables Don’t Work 73

        Mass Storage Devices Do Not Work Properly 74

        Memory Failures 74

        Card, Memory, or Heat Sink Blocked by Motherboard Layout 74

    Processors and CPUs 75

        Overview of Processor Differences 75

        Intel Processors 75

        AMD Processors 79

        Processor Sockets and Packaging 83

        CPU Technologies 84

        Hyperthreading (HT Technology) 84

        Dual-Core and Multi-Core 85

        Processor Throttling 85

        Microcode (MMX) 85

        Overclocking 86

        Cache 87

        VRM 88

        Speed (Real Versus Actual): Clock Speed Versus Performance 88

        32-bit Versus 64-bit 89

        Choosing the Best Processor for the Job 89

        Performance 89

        Thermal Issues 89

        32-bit Versus 64-bit (x64) Compatibility 90

        Other Processor Features 90

        Installing Processors 90

        Removing the Heat Sink 91

        Removing the Processor 93

        Installing a New Processor 94

        Slot-Type CPU (early Pentium III, early AMD Athlon, and Others) 96

        Troubleshooting Processors 98

        System Runs Slower Than Rated Speed 98

        Processor Failure 99

    Installing Adapter Cards 99

        General Installation 100

        Display Adapters 103

        Sound Cards 104

        Video Capture Cards 104

        Troubleshooting Adapter Cards 105

        Device Connected to Adapter Card Doesn’t Work 105

        Performing Driver and Firmware Upgrades 106

Chapter 4 BIOS 111

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 111

    Understanding BIOS, CMOS, and Firmware 115

    Configuring the System BIOS 117

        Accessing the BIOS Setup Program 118

        BIOS Settings Overview 120

        Automatic Configuration of BIOS/CMOS Settings 123

        Selecting Options 124

        Main Menu 124

        Standard Features/Settings 125

        Floppy Drive BIOS Configuration 126

        PATA and SATA BIOS Configuration 126

        System Information 127

        Integrated Peripherals 129

        Onboard Devices 130

        I/O Devices 131

        PATA/IDE and SATA Configuration 132

        Power Management 134

        PnP/PCI Configurations 135

        Hardware Monitor 136

        Processor and Memory Configuration 137

        Security Features 138

        Exiting the BIOS and Saving/Discarding Changes 139

    Power-On Self-Test and Error Reporting 140

        Beep Codes 141

        POST Error Messages 142

        POST Hex Codes 143

    BIOS Updates 144

        Flash BIOS Update 145

        BIOS Chip Replacement 147

Chapter 5 Power Supplies and System Cooling 153

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 153

    Power Supplies 157

        Power Supply Ratings 157

        Multivoltage Power Supplies 159

        Causes and Cures of Power Supply Overheating 161

        Overloading 161

        Fan Failure 163

        Inadequate Air Flow Outside the System 163

        Inadequate Air Flow Inside the System 164

        Dirt and Dust 164

        Replacing Power Supply Form Factors and Connectors 165

        Removing and Replacing the Power Supply 168

        Testing Power Supplies with a Multimeter 170

        Determining Power Supply DC Voltage Levels 172

        Avoiding Power Supply Hazards 174

Power Protection Types 175

        Surge Suppressors 176

        Battery Backup Units (UPS and SPS) 178

        Power Conditioning Devices 180

        Buying the Correct-Sized Battery Backup System 180

    Troubleshooting Power Problems 181

    System Cooling 182

        Passive and Active Heat Sinks 183

        North/Southbridge Cooling 184

        Video Card Cooling 186

        Case Fans 187

        Thermal Compound 188

        Liquid Cooling Systems 191

Chapter 6 RAM 195

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 195

    RAM Basics 199

    RAM Types 201

        DRAM 201

        SRAM 201

        SDRAM 202

        DDR SDRAM 202

        DDR2 SDRAM 202

        DDR3 SDRAM 203

        Rambus 203

    Operational Characteristics 204

        Comparison of Memory Modules 205

        Memory Module Width 206

        Parity and Non-Parity Memory 207

        ECC and Non-ECC Memory 208

        Registered and Unbuffered Memory 209

        Single-Sided and Double-Sided Memory 209

    Installing DIMMs and Rambus RDRAM Modules 210

    Troubleshooting Memory 212

        Verifying RAM Compatibility 212

        Overclocking Can Lead to System Instability 213

        Avoid Mixing Metals in RAM and Sockets 213

        Use Caution When Mismatching RAM Speeds 213

        EDO Compatibility with Other RAM Types 214

        “Parity Error - System Halted” Message 215

        RAM-Sizing Errors at Bootup 215

        Determining Whether Cache RAM Is the Source of a Memory Problem 216

        Other Methods for RAM Testing 216

    Preventative Maintenance for Memory 217

Chapter 7 I/O and Multimedia Ports and Devices 221

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 221

    Understanding I/O Ports 225

        USB 225

        USB Port Types, Speeds, and Technical Details 225

        Adding USB Ports 228

        SCSI 229

        Multiple Device Support with SCSI Host Adapters 229

        Jumper Block and DIP Switch Settings for Device IDs 230

        SCSI Standards 232

        SCSI Cables 233

        SCSI Signaling Types 234

        Daisy-Chaining SCSI Devices 234

        SCSI Host Adapter Card Installation 236

        SCSI Daisy-Chain Maximum Length 236

        SCSI Termination Methods 237

        Serial (COM) 238

        Serial Port Pinouts 240

        Types of Serial Cables 241

        Standard IRQ and I/O Port Addresses 243

        How to Configure or Disable Serial Ports 243

        Serial Port Software Configuration 244

        Adding Additional Serial Ports 245

        Parallel (LPT) 246

        Parallel Port Configuration 248

        IEEE 1394 (FireWire) 253

        IEEE 1394 Ports and Cables 253

        IEEE 1394—Compatible Devices and Technical Requirements 254

        Installing an IEEE 1394 Card 254

        PS/2 (Mini-DIN) 255

        Centronics 255

        1/8-inch Audio Mini-Jack 256

        SPDIF Digital Audio 256

        MIDI Port 257

        RG-6 Coaxial 258

    Understanding Input Devices 258

        Keyboard 258

        Mouse and Pointing Devices 259

        Mouse Resource Usage 260

        Bar Code Reader 260

        Biometric Devices 260

        Touch Screens 261

        Touch Screen Interfacing to the Computer 261

Understanding Multimedia Devices 262

        Webcam 262

        Digital Camera 262

        MIDI Music and MIDI Ports 262

        Sound Card 262

        Microphone 263

        Video Capture Card 264

    Installing Input and Multimedia Devices 264

        Installing a Keyboard 265

        Installing a Mouse or Other Pointing Device 265

        Installing a Bar Code Reader 265

        Installing a Webcam 266

        Installing a Digital Camera 266

        Installing a MIDI Port 267

        Installing a Microphone 267

        Installing a Biometric Device 268

        Installing a Touch Screen 268

        Installing a Sound Card 268

        Installing a Video Capture Card 269

    Troubleshooting Input and Multimedia Devices 270

        Troubleshooting Keyboards 270

        Troubleshooting Mice and Pointing Devices 270

        Mouse Pointer Won’t Move 272

        Jerky Mouse Pointer Movement 273

        User Can’t Double-Click Icons 274

        Troubleshooting Touch Screen 274

        Troubleshooting Sound Card 275

        Sound Card Plays Sounds But Can’t Record CD-Quality Sound 275

        Sound Card Works in Some Systems But Not in Others 275

        Sound Playback Is Distorted or Choppy 275

        No Sound at All from Sound Card 275

        Sound Card Can’t Play MIDI Files 276

        Troubleshooting SCSI Devices 277

        External SCSI Device Isn’t Available 277

        External or Internal SCSI Device Isn’t Available 278

    Troubleshooting I/O Ports 278

        Troubleshooting USB Ports and Devices 278

        USB Devices Not Recognized 278

        USB Port Problems 279

        Troubleshooting IEEE 1394 Ports and Devices 280

        System Can’t Detect the IEEE 1394 Card or Port 280

        Incorrect Driver for IEEE 1394 Card or Device 281

        Troubleshooting Parallel (LPT) Ports and Devices 281

        Parallel Port Mode Problems 281

        Problems with Daisy-Chained Devices 282

        Cabling and Port Problems 282

        Testing Parallel Ports 283

        Switchbox Problems 284

        Troubleshooting Serial Ports and Devices 284

        COM 4 I/O Port Conflicts 284

        Serial Port Drops Characters When Multitasking 284

        Can’t Connect Serial Devices to Port Because of Mismatched Connectors 285

        Serial Cabling and Port Problems 285

        Serial Configuration Problems 286

        Testing Serial Ports 286

    Maintaining Input Devices 286

        Maintaining Mice and Pointing Devices 286

        Maintaining Keyboards 288

Chapter 8 Video Displays and Graphics Cards 293

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 293

    Video (Graphics) Card Types 297

        Video Card Cooling 297

    Installing a Video Card 298

        BIOS Configuration 298

        Video Card Physical and Driver Installation 299

    Display Types 301

        CRT Monitor 302

        LCD Monitor 303

        Data Projector 303

    Video Connector Types 304

        VGA 305

        DVI 305

        HDMI 307

        Component/RGB 307

        S-Video 308

        Composite 308

    Display Settings 308

        Resolution 309

        Color Quality (Color Depth) 311

        Refresh Rates 312

    Installing a Monitor 313

    Troubleshooting Displays and Video Cards 314

        Troubleshooting Picture Quality Problems with OSD 314

        Using Advanced Display Properties for Troubleshooting 316

        Troubleshooting Video Hardware 317

    Preventative Maintenance for Displays 319

Chapter 9 Laptops and Portable Devices 323

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 323

    Fundamental Features of Laptops and Portable Devices 327

        Memory 329

        Storage Devices 330

        Peripherals 331

        Docking Stations and Port Replicators 331

        Media and Accessory Bays 333

        Expansion Slots 334

        PCMCIA (PC Card, CardBus) 334

        ExpressCard 337

        Mini-PCI and Mini-PCIe 338

        Communications Connections 340

        Bluetooth 340

        Infrared (IrDA) 341

        Cellular WAN 342

        Ethernet 342

        Wireless Ethernet (WLAN or Wi-Fi) 343

        LCD Screen Technologies 343

        Active Matrix 344

        Passive Matrix 344

        Screen Resolutions 344

        Screen Quality Considerations 345

        Input Devices 346

        Stylus and Digitizer 347

        Fn Keys 347

        Touch Pad 347

        Pointing Stick / TrackPoint 349

        Power Management Issues 349

        Processor Throttling 350

        Peripheral Power Management 350

        Power Sources 350

        Battery Types 350

        AC Adapters 351

    Configuring Power Management 353

        ACPI 353

        Suspend, Standby, and Hibernate Modes 356

    Applications for Portable and Laptop Hardware 357

        Using Communications Connections 357

        Using Bluetooth 358

        Using Infrared (IrDA) 358

        Using Cellular WAN 359

        Using Ethernet 359

        Using Wireless Ethernet (WLAN) 359

        Working with Power Sources 363

        Working with Display Subsystem Components 363

        Adjusting the Amount of Shared Video Memory 364

        Adjusting Brightness and Contrast on a Laptop Computer’s Display 364

        Using DualView to Work with a Secondary Monitor or Projector 365

        Cloning the Laptop Display to a Secondary Display or Projector 367

    Safe Removal of Laptop-Specific Hardware 369

        Safe Removal of PC Cards 370

        Safe Removal of ExpressCards 370

        Safe Removal of Batteries 370

        Safe Removal and Installation of Mini-PCI Cards 372

        Safe Removal and Installation of Hard Disk Drives 373

        Safe Removal of Optical Drives 374

        Safe Removal and Installation of Memory 375

        Safe Removal of LCD Panels 376

        Safe Removal and Replacement of Pointing Devices 377

    Portable and Laptop Diagnostics 379

        Power Troubleshooting 379

        AC Power Troubleshooting 379

        DC Power Troubleshooting 380

        Display Troubleshooting 380

        Using an External Monitor to Check the Display Subsystem 381

        Solving Internal Display Problems 381

        LCD Cutoff Switch 381

        Checking for Backlight Problems 381

        Dead Pixels 382

        Other Components 382

        Removing Peripherals 382

        Stylus and Digitizer Problems 383

        Keypad Problems 383

        Antenna Wires 384

    Preventative Maintenance for Laptops and Portable Devices 384

        Cooling Devices 384

        Display Screens 386

        Suitable Operating Environments 386

        Air Temperature 386

        Air Quality 386

        Storage Methods 386

        Transportation and Shipping 386

Chapter 10 Security 391

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 391

    Security Fundamentals 395

        Secure and Insecure File Systems 395

        Authentication Technologies 395

        Username/Password/PIN 396

        Smart Cards 396

        Biometrics 396

        Protection Against Viruses and Malware 397

        Software Firewalls 397

        Hardware Recycling and Deconstruction 398

    Securing Wireless Networks 398

        WEP and WPA Encryption 398

        Access Point Configuration for Maximum Security 399

        DHCP Versus Static IP Addresses 400

        Changing the SSID 400

        Disabling SSID Broadcast 401

        MAC Address Filtering 402

        Changing Default Administrator User Password 403

        Updating Access Point Firmware 404

        Firewall Features 405

    Data and Physical Security 405

        Data Access Local Security Policy 405

        Encryption Technologies 406

        Encrypting File System 406

        BitLocker Encryption 407

        Backups 408

        Data Migration 408

        Data and Data Remnant Removal 409

        Password Management 409

        Locking a Workstation 410

        Incident Reporting 410

        Social Engineering 411

    Access Control Purposes and Principles 412

        Operating System Access Control 412

        User, Administration, and Guest Accounts 412

        User Account Control (UAC) 412

        Groups 413

        Permissions Actions, Types, and Levels 414

        Permission Inheritance and Propagation 414

        Moving and Copying Folders and Files 415

        Components 415

        Restricted Spaces 415

        Auditing and Event Logging 415

    Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Security Features 417

        BIOS Security Features 417

        Software Firewalls 418

        Configuring Exceptions 419

        Troubleshooting Software Firewalls 421

        Wireless Network Configuration 422

        Configuring a Wireless Client with Windows XP SP2/SP3 422

        Configuring a Wireless Client with Windows Vista 425

        Configuring a Wireless Client with Windows 7 426

        Troubleshooting Wireless Clients 427

        Unused Wireless Connections 428

        File Systems (Converting From FAT32 To NTFS) 430

        Malicious Software Protection 431

        Types of Malware and Infection Methods 432

        Training Users in Malware Protection 432

Chapter 11 Printers 435

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 435

    Printing Fundamentals 439

        Laser Printers 439

        How Laser Printers Use Memory 440

        Toner Cartridges 442

        Laser Printer Paper and Media 443

        Inkjet Printers 444

        Ink Cartridges 444

        Inkjet Printer Paper and Media 446

        Thermal Printers 446

        Thermal Printer Ribbons 446

        Thermal Printer Paper 447

        Impact Printers 447

        Impact Printer Ribbons 448

        Impact Printer Paper and Media 448

    Printer and Scanner Control 449

        Drivers 450

        Firmware 450

    Print Processes 450

        Laser Print Process 451

        Step 1: Cleaning 452

        Step 2: Conditioning 452

        Step 3: Writing 452

        Step 4: Developing 453

        Step 5: Transferring 453

        Step 6: Fusing 453

        Color Laser Printing Differences 453

        Inkjet Print Process 453

        Thermal Print Processes 454

        Impact Print Process 455

    Interface Types 456

        Adding Bluetooth Support 457

        Adding Ethernet Support 457

        Adding 802.11Wireless Ethernet (WLAN) Support 458

        Adding Infrared Support 458

    Printer Installation 458

        Verifying Device Compatibility with Operating System and Applications 458

        Connecting the Device 459

        Installing Device Drivers 459

        Using the Add Printer Wizard (Windows Vista and XP) 459

        Using the Add Printer Wizard (Windows 7) 461

        Installing a Printer or Multifunction Unit with a Vendor-Supplied Driver 461

        Calibrating the Device 462

        Configuring Options and Device Settings 462

        Printer Options 462

        Printing a Test Page 466

        Educating the User About Basic Functionality 467

    Optimizing Printer Performance 467

        Tray Switching 467

        Print Spooler Settings 468

        XPS Features in Windows 7 and Vista 469

        Device Calibration 470

        Media Types 470

        Paper Orientation 471

        Print Order 472

    Installing and Configuring Printer Upgrades 472

        Memory 473

        Firmware 474

    Printer Troubleshooting Tools and Techniques 475

        Identify the Problem 475

        Identifying Symptoms 475

        Review Device Error Codes 476

        Review Computer Error Messages and Logs 476

        Using the Self-Test Feature 477

        Using Diagnostic Tools 478

        Establishing a Theory of Probable Cause 478

        Reviewing Service Documentation 478

        Reviewing Knowledge Base 479

        Defining and Isolating the Problem 479

        Testing the Theory to Determine Cause 480

        Problem: A complex document (one with many fonts or graphics) does not print 480

        Problem: Repetitive marks on laser-printed document 481

        Establishing a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and Implement the Solution 481

        Verifying Full System Functionality and Implementing Preventative Measures (if Applicable) 481

        Documenting Findings, Actions, and Results 481

        Troubleshooting Print Failures 482

        Paper Out 482

        Clearing Print Queue 482

        Restarting Print Queue 483

        Power Off, Power On Printer 483

        Paper Jams 483

        Print Quality Problems 484

        Error Messages and Codes 487

        Performing Preventative Maintenance 489

        Installing Maintenance Kits 489

        Resetting Paper Counts 489

        Cleaning Rollers, Printheads, and Other Components 489

        Checking for a Suitable Environment 490

        Using Recommended Supplies 491

        Recommended Tools 491

        Multimeter 491

        Screwdrivers 492

        Cleaning Solutions 492

        Extension Magnet 492

Chapter 12 Storage Devices 497

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 497

    Floppy Disk Drives 501

        Floppy Disk Types 502

        Floppy Disk Drive Hardware Configuration 503

        Floppy Disk Drive Physical Installation and Removal 505

        Floppy Drive BIOS Configuration 505

        Maintaining Floppy Disks, Data, and Drives 507

    Hard Disk Drives 508

        PATA and SATA Data and Power Cables 509

        PATA Drive Jumpering and Cable Select 510

        ATA Specifications 511

        ATA/IDE Drive Physical Installation 512

        SATA Hard Drive Physical Installation 514

        Installing an SATA Host Adapter 516

        PATA BIOS Configuration 517

        SATA BIOS Configuration 520

        eSATA 521

        Creating an ATA or SATA RAID Array 523

        ATA/IDE Performance Optimization 526

        PIO and DMA Transfer Modes 526

        IDE Block Mode 528

        IDE Busmastering Drivers 528

        Enabling DMA Transfers for PATA Devices in Windows 528

        Adjusting Disk Caching Settings in Windows 530

    CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Optical Drives 530

        CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Drive Interfaces 532

        Physical Installation of Optical Drives 533

        Recording CDs and DVDs in Windows XP 533

        Recording CDs and DVDs in Windows Vista and 7 535

        IDE/ATAPI Optical Drive Installation Issues 536

    Removable Storage 537

    Tape Drives 538

    Flash Memory and Card Readers 539

        Flash Card Reader 541

        Installing and Using a Flash Card Reader 542

        Hot-Swapping Flash Memory Cards 543

    USB Flash Memory Drives 543

        Hot-Swapping USB Flash Memory Drives 544

    External Hard Disks 545

        Hot-Swapping USB or IEEE-1394—Based External Hard Disks 545

        Solid State Drives (SSDs) 546

    Troubleshooting Storage 547

        Troubleshooting Floppy Disk Drives 547

        Internal Floppy Drive Cabling Problems 547

        BIOS Configuration Problems 547

        Drive Reliability and Compatibility Problems 547

        Changeline Problems 549

        Isolating Floppy Subsystem Problems 549

        Troubleshooting PATA (ATA/IDE) Drives 550

        Incompatible PATA Cables 550

        UDMA-66 or Faster Drive Limited to UDMA-33 Speeds 550

        No Power to Drive 551

        Cables Attached Incorrectly to ATA/IDE Interface or Drive 551

        Physical or Electronic Damage to Drive 551

        Jumpering Issues 552

        Drive Not Ready Error 552

        Troubleshooting SATA and eSATA Drives 552

        Loose Data and Power Cables 552

        eSATA Drive Cannot Be Accessed 553

        SATA 3Gbps Drive Runs in Reduced Performance Mode (1.5Gbps) 553

        Physical or Electronic Damage to Drive 553

        Using Hard Disk Diagnostics 554

        Troubleshooting CD-ROM and DVD Drives 554

        Read Delays After New Media Is Inserted 555

        Drive Not Supported by CD/DVD Mastering Program 555

        Can’t Write to Media 557

        Can’t Read Some Media Types in CD-ROM or DVD Drives 559

        Buffer Underrun Failures 559

        Damage to Media Prevents Drive from Reading Media 560

        Can’t Play Music Through Sound Card’s Speakers 560

        Troubleshooting Removable-Media, External, and Tape Drives 561

        Drive Not Recognized Problems 561

        Read/Write Problems 562

Chapter 13 Using and Managing Windows 567

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 568

    Differences in Windows Versions 572

        GUI 572

        System Requirements 575

        Application Compatibility 576

        Program Compatibility Wizard in Windows 7 576

        Program Compatibility Wizard in Windows XP and Vista 577

        Additional Application Compatibility Features 579

    Primary Windows Components 580

        Registry 580

    Windows Interfaces 581

        Windows Explorer 581

        Common Tasks View in Windows XP 583

        Windows Vista Favorite Links View 584

        Windows 7 Explorer View 585

        Changing Viewing Options in Windows Explorer 586

        Displaying Objects in Files and Folders 587

        Windows Vista Additions to Windows Explorer 588

        Windows 7 Additions to Windows Explorer 589

        My Computer 590

        Control Panel 591

        Starting Control Panel 595

        Shortcuts to Control Panel Functions 596

        Command Prompt 596

        Network 597

        My Network Places 598

        Devices and Printers 598

        Taskbar/Notification Area 600

        Start Menu 603

        Adding, Removing, and Sorting Start Menu Items and Folders with Windows Vista/XP 603

        Adding and Removing Start Menu Items and Folders with Windows 7 605

        Adjusting Start Menu Properties 605

        Jump ListsWindows 607

        Indexing 608

    Essential Operating System Files 609

        Windows 7 and Vista Boot Sequence 610

        Windows XP Boot Sequence 610

        BOOT.INI 611

        NTLDR and NTDETECT.COM 612

        NTBOOTDD.SYS 612

        Registry Data Files 612

        Backing Up Registry Data Files 613

        hiberfil.sys 614

    Disk Partition, File, and Folder Management 615

        Disk Partitions 615

        Using Disk Management 617

        Mount Points and Mounting a Drive 623

        Windows File Systems 624

        FAT32 624

        exFAT (FAT64) 625

        NTFS 625

        Convert.exe 626

        Working with Folders/Directories 628

        Working with Libraries in Windows 7 629

        Managing Folders in a Library 630

        Changing Viewing Options 631

        File Management 631

        Creating Files 632

        File Types 632

        Naming Files 634

        Long Filenames and DOS Alias Names 634

        File Extensions 635

        Symbolic Links 636

        Setting and Displaying File and Folder Attributes in Windows Explorer 636

        File Permissions 639

        DEFRAG 640

        NTBackup 641

        Using Windows Vista’s Backup and Restore Center 643

        Using Windows 7’s Backup and Restore 644

        CHKDSK.EXE 647

        Format/Format.exe 648

        Using Format with Floppy, USB Flash, and Removable-Media Drives 649

        Formatting Floppy and Hard Disks with Windows Explorer 649

        Windows Explorer Command-Line Options 651

    Command-Line Functions 652

        Starting a Command-Prompt Session with CMD.EXE 652

        Internal Commands Overview 653

        Using Wildcards to Specify a Range of Files 654

        HELP 655

        DIR 655

        EDIT 657

        COPY 658

        XCOPY 658

        MD/CD/RD 661

    System Management Tools 662

        Device Manager 662

        Computer Management and the MMC 665

        Task Manager 666

        MSCONFIG.EXE 668

        REGEDIT.EXE 670

        Event Viewer 672

        System Restore 673

        Remote Desktop 676

        Configuring Your Windows System to Accept Remote Client Connections 677

        Connecting Remotely 678

        Ending the Remote Session 680

    Optimizing Windows 680

        Virtual Memory, Performance Monitor, and System Monitor 680

        Hard Disk 684

        Temporary Files 684

        Temporary File Settings in Windows 7/Vista/XP/2000 685

        Services 686

        Startup 688

        Applications 688

        Adjusting the Balance Between Background Services and Application Response 688

        Adjusting the Priority of a Process 689

        Stopping Unresponsive Applications 690

Chapter 14 Installing and Upgrading Windows Operating Systems 695

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 695

    Installing Operating Systems 699

        Verifying Hardware Compatibility and Minimum Requirements 699

        Comparing Windows 7 Editions 701

        Migrating User Data 702

        Installation Methods 704

        Starting a Clean Installation of Windows 7 from the Distribution DVD 704

        Starting a Clean Installation of Windows Vista from the Distribution DVD 707

        Installing Windows XP from the Distribution CD 710

        Network Drive Installation 711

        Disk Image 712

        Installing Windows from a Recovery DVD/CD 713

        Using Boot Disks to Start the Installation (XP and 2000 only) 713

        Installing Windows 7 or Windows Vista from a USB Thumb Drive 714

        Installation Method Options 716

        Attended Versus Unattended Installation 716

        Network Configuration 717

        Preparing the Hard Disk for Installation 718

        Providing Device Drivers During Installation 722

        Verifying Installation 723

    Upgrading Operating Systems 726

        Preparations to Make Before Upgrading to a Newer Version of Windows 727

        Upgrading to Windows 7 from Windows Vista 728

        Upgrading to Windows Vista from Windows XP 732

        Upgrading to Windows 7 from Windows XP 734

        Upgrading to Windows XP from 2000 735

        Troubleshooting a Windows Upgrade 736

Chapter 15 Troubleshooting and Maintaining Windows 743

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 743

        Troubleshooting Windows 747

        Recovering an Operating System 747

        Last Known Good Configuration, Safe Mode, and Other Advanced Boot Options 747

        Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE) 751

        Recovery Console 753

        Using System Restore with Advanced Boot Options 757

        Using Windows 7’s Image Backup 757

        Using Windows Vista’s Complete PC Backup 759

        Using Automated System Recovery (ASR) (Windows XP) 760

        Using the Emergency Repair Disk (Windows 2000) 761

        Diagnosing and Troubleshooting Other Problems 762

        Identifying the Problem: User Interview 762

        Analyzing the Problem 763

        Identifying the Problem: Logs and Services 764

        Recording Symptoms and Error Codes 766

        Checking Configurations and Device Manager 767

        Common Problems 767

        STOP (Blue Screen) Errors 767

        Auto Restart Errors 769

        System Lockups 770

        DxDiag 773

        I/O Devices 773

        Driver Signing 774

        Application Troubleshooting 774

        Application Start or Load Failure 775

        Print Spooler Stalled 776

        Incorrect/Incompatible Printer Driver 777

        Common Error Messages and Codes 777

        Windows 7/Vista Boot Errors 777

        Windows XP/2000 Boot Errors 779

        Device/Service Startup Errors 780

        More Windows Errors and Error Reporting 781

        Solving Disk Problems 782

        Using Diagnostic Utilities and Tools 783

        Can’t Boot from Hard Disk 783

        Using Task Manager 784

        Troubleshooting with Device Manager 786

        Using System File Checker (SFC) 790\

    Maintaining Windows 790

        Installing Service Packs and Hotfixes 790

        Using Windows Update and Microsoft Update 793

        Performing Scheduled Backup and Restore 794

        Image Backups 794

Chapter 16 Networking 799

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 800

    Network Models 805

        Client/Server 805

        Servers 806

        Clients 807

        Peer-to-Peer 807

    Internet Connectivity Technologies 808

        Modems and Dial-Up Internet Connectivity 808

        Modem Technologies and Types 809

        Analog Modem Installation 812

        Dial-Up Internet Service Providers 813

        Creating a Dial-Up Connection 813

        Requirements for a Dial-Up Internet Connection 814

        ISDN Internet Connectivity 814

        ISDN Hardware 815

        Setting Up an ISDN Connection 815

        Broadband Internet Services (DSL, Cable, Satellite) 816

        DSL 816

        Cable Internet 818

        Satellite 818

        LANs and Internet Connectivity 820

    Network Protocols 820

        TCP/IP 820

        NetBEUI/NetBIOS 821

    TCP/IP Applications and Technologies 821

ISP 821

        HTTP/HTTPS 821

        SSL 822

        TLS 822

        HTML 822

        FTP 822

        Telnet 823

        SSH 824

        DNS 824

        E-mail 825

        SMTP 826

        POP 826

        IMAP 826

        Ports 826

    Network Topologies 827

    Network Types 828

        Wired Ethernet Types 828

        Wireless Ethernet 829

        Bluetooth 830

        Infrared 830

        Cellular 831

        VoIP 831

    Cable and Connector Types 832

        UTP and STP Cabling 832

        Fiber-Optic Cabling 834

        Coaxial Cabling 836

        Plenum and PVC 837

        Connector Types 837

    Installing Network Interface Cards 838

        PCI and PCI Express 838

        USB 839

        PC Card/CardBus 839

    Configuring Network Interface Cards 839

        Hardware Resources 839

        Media Type 840

        Full/Half-Duplex 840

        Wireless Ethernet (WLAN) Configuration 840

    Switches and Hubs 841

    Beyond LANs–Repeaters, Bridges, and Routers 842

    Networking Configuration 843

        Installing Network Protocols in Windows 843

        TCP/IPv4 Configuration 844

        TCP/IP Configuration with a DHCP Server 845

        TCP/IP Alternate Configuration 846

        TCP/IP User-Configured IP and DNS Addresses 847

        TCP/IP User-Configured Advanced Settings 847

        Understanding IP Addressing, Subnet Masks, and IP Classes 847

        WINS Configuration 850

        Gateway 851

        DNS Configuration 851

        IPv6 IP Addressing 851

        NetBEUI Configuration 853

    Setting Up Shared Resources 853

        Installing File and Printer Sharing 854

        Shared Folders and Drives 855

        Sharing a Folder Using Simple File Sharing 855

        Sharing a Folder with User/Group Permissions in Windows Vista or Windows 7


        Shared Printers 858

    Administrative Shares 858

    Setting Up the Network Client 858

        Installing Network Client Software 859

        Installing a Network Printer 859

    Using Shared Resources 860

        The Universal Naming Convention (UNC) 861

        Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDNs) 862

        Mapped Drives 863

    Browser Installation and Configuration 864

        Setting Up Your Browser to Use Your Internet Connection 865

        Enabling/Disabling Script Settings 867

        Configuring Browser Security Settings 867

    Using Network Command-Line Tools 868

        Using the Net Command 868

        Using Ping 868

        Using Tracert 869

        Using NSLookup 870

        Using Ipconfig 870

    Network and Internet Troubleshooting 871

        Can’t Access Network Resources 871

        Significant Drops in Network Performance 872

        Unattended PC Drops Its Network Connection 873

        All Users Lose Network Connection 873

        Users Can Access Some Shared Resources But Not Others 874

        Can’t Print to a Network Printer 874

        Ping and Tracert Work, But User Can’t Display Web Pages with Browser 874

    Overview of Creating a Small Office/Home Office (SOHO) Network 874

Chapter 17 Safety and Environmental Issues 879

    “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 879

    Recycling and Disposal Issues 883

        Disposing of Batteries 883

        Recycling Toner and Printer Cartridges 883

        Disposing of Chemical Solvents and Cans 884

        Disposing of Obsolete Monitors and Computer Hardware 884

    Using an MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) 885

    Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) 885

        Preventing ESD 886

        Power Diagnostics, ESD, and Safety 887

        Protection Devices 888

        Correct Storage for Equipment 889

        Additional ESD Precautions 890

    Hazards 890

        High Voltage Hazards 891

        Printers 891

        The Power Supply 891

        CRT Monitors 892

        Systems in Suspend Mode 893

        Precautions Against Electric Shock 893

        Discharging CRTs 894

        Mechanical Hazards 895

        Tripping Hazards 895

        Liquid Hazards 896

        Situational Hazards 896

        Atmospheric Hazards 897

        Heavy Equipment Hazards 897

    Environmental and Accident Incident Handling 898

Chapter 18 Troubleshooting and Communications Methods 901

        “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 901

        Troubleshooting Methods Overview 905

        The Client Interview 907

        Tips for Conducting the Client Interview 908

        How to Evaluate the Client’s Environment 909

        Testing Power 909

        Looking for Sources of Interference 910

        Recording Symptoms and Error Codes 910

    Determining Whether a Problem Is Caused by Hardware or Software 911

        What Components to Check First 914

        Points of Failure on the Outside of the Computer 914

        “Known-Working” Doesn’t Mean “New”–Best Sources for Replacement Parts 915

        Keeping Track of Your Solutions 916

    Where to Go for More Information 916

    Useful Hardware and Software Tools 918

        Hardware Diagnostics 918

        Cleaning and Maintenance Tools 920

        Recommended Equipment Cleaning Products 921

        Selecting and Using a Computer-Compatible Vacuum Cleaner 922

    Professional Behavior 922

        How to Talk to Customers 922

        How to Treat Customers’ Property 923

Appendix A Answers to the “Do I Know this Already?” Quizes and Troubleshooting

Scenarios 927

Elements Available on the CD

Appendix B Memory Tables

Appendix C Memory Tables Answer Key

Appendix D Hardware Resources


TOC, 9780789747907, 1/18/2011


Submit Errata

More Information

Pearson IT Certification Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Pearson IT Certification and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Pearson IT Certification products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Adobe Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.pearsonitcertification.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020