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Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN) (Authorized CCDA Self-Study Guide) (Exam 640-863), 2nd Edition

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  • Copyright 2008
  • Edition: 2nd
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 1-58705-522-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-522-5

Authorized Self-Study Guide

Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN)

Second Edition

Foundation learning for CCDA exam 640-863

Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition, is a Cisco®-authorized, self-paced learning tool for CCDA® foundation learning. This book provides you with the knowledge needed to design enterprise networks. By reading this book, you will gain a thorough understanding of designing routed and switched network infrastructures and services within a modular architecture.

In Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition, you will study a broad range of network design principles and guidelines. You will learn about network design in the context of the Cisco Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) framework and the Cisco Enterprise Architecture. Specific topics include campus and data center infrastructure, remote connectivity, IP addressing design, routing protocol selection, voice network design, wireless network design, and including security in your designs. An ongoing case study plus chapter-ending review questions illustrate and help solidify the concepts presented in the book.

Whether you are preparing for CCDA certification or simply want to gain a better understanding of network design principles, you will benefit from the foundation information presented in this book.

Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition, is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press. To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, please visit www.cisco.com/go/authorizedtraining.

Diane Teare is a professional in the networking, training, and e-learning fields. She has more than 20 years of experience in designing, implementing, and troubleshooting network hardware and software and has also been involved in teaching, course design, and project management. She has extensive knowledge of network design and routing technologies and is an instructor with one of the largest authorized Cisco Learning Partners.

  • Understand the Cisco vision of intelligent networks and the SONA framework
  • Learn how to structure and modularize network designs within the Cisco Enterprise Architecture
  • Design basic campus and data center networks
  • Build designs for remote connectivity with WAN technologies
  • Create IPv4 addressing schemes
  • Understand IPv6 design
  • Select the appropriate routing protocol for various modules in the Cisco Enterprise Architecture
  • Design basic VoIP and IP telephony networks
  • Understand wireless design principles
  • Build security into your network designs

This volume is in the Certification Self-Study Series offered by Cisco Press®. Books in this series provide officially developed self-study solutions to help networking professionals understand technology implementations and prepare for the Cisco Career Certifications examinations.

Category: Cisco Press—Network Design

Covers: CCDA Exam 640-863

Sample Content

Table of Contents




Chapter 1 Network Fundamentals Review

Introduction to Networks

Protocols and the OSI Model

    The OSI Model


    The OSI Layers

        Physical Layer—Layer 1

        Data Link Layer—Layer 2

        Network Layer—Layer 3

        Transport Layer—Layer 4

        Upper Layers—Layers 5 Through 7

    Communication Among OSI Layers

LANs and WANs

Network Devices

    Terminology: Domains, Bandwidth, Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast




Introduction to the TCP/IP Suite

    TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols

        Port Numbers

        TCP Sequencing, Acknowledgment, and Windowing

    TCP/IP Internet Layer Protocols


        IP Datagrams

    TCP/IP-Related Data Link Layer Protocol


    Routers Work at the Lower Three OSI Layers

    Routing Tables

    Routing Protocols


    Physical Addresses

    Logical Addresses

    Routing and Network Layer Addresses

    IP Addresses

        IP Address Classes

        Private and Public IP Addresses


Switching Types

    Layer 2 Switching

    Layer 3 Switching

Spanning Tree Protocol

    Redundancy in Layer 2 Switched Networks

    STP Terminology and Operation

        STP Terminology

        STP States

        Rapid STP

Virtual LANs

    VLAN Membership


    STP and VLANs

    Inter-VLAN Routing

Comprehensive Example


Chapter 2 Applying a Methodology to Network Design

The Cisco Service Oriented Network Architecture

    Business Drivers for a New Network Architecture

    Intelligence in the Network

    Cisco SONA Framework

Network Design Methodology

    Design as an Integral Part of the PPDIOO Methodology

    Benefits of the Lifecycle Approach to Network Design

    Design Methodology

Identifying Customer Requirements

    Assessing the Scope of a Network Design Project

    Identifying Required Information

        Extracting Initial Requirements

        Gathering Network Requirements

    Planned Applications and Network Services

    Organizational Goals

    Organizational Constraints

    Technical Goals

    Technical Constraints

Characterizing the Existing Network and Sites

    Customer Input

        Sample Site Contact Information

        Sample High-Level Network Diagram

    Auditing or Assessing the Existing Network

    Tools for Assessing the Network

        Manual Information Collection Examples

        Automatic Information Collection Examples

    Analyzing Network Traffic and Applications

    Tools for Analyzing Traffic



        Other Network Analysis Tools Examples

    Network Health Checklist

    Summary Report

    Creating a Draft Design Document

    Time Estimates for Performing Network Characterization

Using the Top-Down Approach to Network Design

    The Top-Down Approach to Network Design

    Top-Down Approach Compared to Bottom-Up Approach

    Top-Down Design Example

    Decision Tables in Network Design

    Structured Design

    Network Design Tools

    Building a Prototype or Pilot Network

    Documenting the Design

The Design Implementation Process

    Planning a Design Implementation

    Implementing and Verifying the Design

    Monitoring and Redesigning the Network



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network Upgrade

    Case Study Scenario

        Organizational Facts

        Current Situation

        Plans and Requirements

    Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 3 Structuring and Modularizing the Network

Network Hierarchy

    Hierarchical Network Model

        Hierarchical Network Design Layers

    Access Layer Functionality

        The Role of the Access Layer

        Layer 2 and Multilayer Switching in the Access Layer

        Access Layer Example

    Distribution Layer Functionality

        The Role of the Distribution Layer

        Distribution Layer Example

    Core Layer Functionality

        The Role of the Core Layer

        Switching in the Core Layer

    Hierarchical Routing in the WAN

Using a Modular Approach to Network Design

    Evolution of Enterprise Networks

    Cisco SONA Framework

    Functional Areas of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture

    Guidelines for Creating an Enterprise Network

    Enterprise Campus Modules

        Campus Infrastructure Module

        Building Access Layer

        Building Distribution Layer

        Campus Core Layer

        Server Farm Module

        Enterprise Campus Guidelines

    Enterprise Edge Modules

        E-commerce Module

        Internet Connectivity Module

        Remote Access and VPN Module

        WAN and MAN and Site-to-Site VPN Module

        Enterprise Edge Guidelines

    Service Provider Modules

        Internet Service Provider Module

        PSTN Module

        Frame Relay/ATM Module

    Remote Enterprise Modules

        Enterprise Branch Module

        Enterprise Data Center Module

        Enterprise Teleworker Module

Services Within Modular Networks

    Interactive Services

    Security Services in a Modular Network Design

        Internal Security

        External Threats

    High-Availability Services in a Modular Network Design

Designing High Availability into a Network

        High Availability in the Server Farm

        Designing Route Redundancy

        Designing Link Redundancy

    Voice Services in a Modular Network Design

        Two Voice Implementations

        IP Telephony Components

        Modular Approach in Voice Network Design

        Evaluating the Existing Data Infrastructure for Voice Design

    Wireless Services in a Modular Network

        Centralized WLAN Components

    Application Networking Services in a Modular Network Design

        ANS Examples

        ANS Components

Network Management Protocols and Features

    Network Management Architecture

        Protocols and Standards







        Cisco MIB

        MIB Polling Guidelines

        MIB Example



        RMON1 Groups

        RMON1 and RMON2

        RMON2 Groups


        NetFlow Versus RMON Information Gathering


        CDP Information

        How CDP Works

    Syslog Accounting

        Syslog Distributed Architecture



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Modularity

Review Questions

Chapter 4 Designing Basic Campus and Data Center Networks

Campus Design Considerations

    Designing an Enterprise Campus

    Network Application Characteristics and Considerations

        Peer-Peer Applications

        Client–Local Server Applications

        Client–Server Farm Applications

        Client–Enterprise Edge Applications

        Application Requirements

    Environmental Characteristics and Considerations

        Network Geography Considerations

        Transmission Media Considerations

    Infrastructure Device Characteristics and Considerations

        Convergence Time

        Multilayer Switching and Cisco Express Forwarding

        IP Multicast

        QoS Considerations in LAN Switches

        Load Sharing in Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switches

Enterprise Campus Design

    Enterprise Campus Requirements

    Building Access Layer Design Considerations

        Managing VLANs and STP

        Managing Trunks Between Switches

        Managing Default PAgP Settings

        Implementing Routing in the Building Access Layer

    Building Distribution Layer Design Considerations

        Using First-Hop Redundancy Protocols

        Deploying Layer 3 Routing Protocols Between Building Distribution and Campus Core Switches

        Supporting VLANs That Span Multiple Building Access Layer Switches

    Campus Core Design Considerations

        Large Campus Design

        Small and Medium Campus Design Options

        Edge Distribution at the Campus Core

    Server Placement

        Servers Directly Attached to Building Access or Building Distribution Layer Switches

        Servers Directly Attached to the Campus Core

        Servers in a Server Farm Module

        Server Farm Design Guidelines

        Server Connectivity Options

        The Effect of Applications on Switch Performance

Enterprise Data Center Design Considerations

    The Enterprise Data Center

    The Cisco Enterprise Data Center Architecture Framework

    Enterprise Data Center Infrastructure

        Data Center Access Layer

        Data Center Aggregation Layer

        Data Center Core Layer

        Density and Scalability of Servers



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network Campus Design

    Case Study Additional Information

    Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 5 Designing Remote Connectivity

Enterprise Edge WAN Technologies

    Introduction to WANs

    WAN Interconnections

    Traditional WAN Technologies

        Packet-Switched Network Topologies

    WAN Transport Technologies

        TDM (Leased Lines)


        Frame Relay

        Asynchronous Transfer Mode


        Metro Ethernet

        DSL Technologies

        Cable Technology

        Wireless Technologies

        Synchronous Optical Network and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

        Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

        Dark Fiber

    WAN Transport Technology Pricing and Contract Considerations

WAN Design

    Application Requirements of WAN Design

        Response Time


        Packet Loss


    Technical Requirements: Maximum Offered Traffic

    Technical Requirements: Bandwidth

    Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of WAN Ownership

    Optimizing Bandwidth in a WAN

        Data Compression

        Bandwidth Combination

        Window Size

        Queuing to Improve Link Utilization

        Congestion Avoidance

        Traffic Shaping and Policing to Rate-Limit Traffic Classes

Using WAN Technologies

    Remote Access Network Design

    VPN Design

        VPN Applications

        VPN Connectivity Options

        Benefits of VPNs

    WAN Backup Strategies

        Dial Backup Routing

        Permanent Secondary WAN Link

        Shadow PVC

    The Internet as a WAN Backup Technology

        IP Routing Without Constraints

        Layer 3 Tunneling with GRE and IPsec

Enterprise Edge WAN and MAN Architecture

    Enterprise Edge WAN and MAN Considerations

    Cisco Enterprise MAN and WAN Architecture Technologies

Selecting Enterprise Edge Components

    Hardware Selection

    Software Selection

    Cisco IOS Software Packaging

        Cisco IOS Packaging Technology Segmentation

        Comparing the Functions of Cisco Router Platforms and Software Families

        Comparing the Functions of Multilayer Switch Platforms and Software Families

Enterprise Branch and Teleworker Design

    Enterprise Branch Architecture

    Enterprise Branch Design

        Small Branch Office Design

        Medium Branch Office Design

        Large Branch Office Design

    Enterprise Teleworker (Branch of One) Design



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network WAN Design

    Case Study Additional Information

        Business Factors

        Technical Factors

    Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 6 Designing IP Addressing in the Network

Designing an IP Addressing Plan

    Private and Public IPv4 Addresses

        Private Versus Public Address Selection Criteria

        Interconnecting Private and Public Addresses

        Guidelines for the Use of Private and Public Addresses in an Enterprise Network

    Determining the Size of the Network

        Determining the Network Topology

        Size of Individual Locations

    Planning the IP Addressing Hierarchy

        Hierarchical Addressing

        Route Summarization

        IP Addressing Hierarchy Criteria

        Benefits of Hierarchical Addressing

        Summarization Groups

        Impact of Poorly Designed IP Addressing

        Benefits of Route Aggregation

        Fixed- and Variable-Length Subnet Masks

        Routing Protocol Considerations

        Classful Routing Protocols

        Classless Routing Protocols

        Hierarchical IP Addressing and Summarization Plan Example

    Methods of Assigning IP Addresses

        Static Versus Dynamic IP Address Assignment Methods

        When to Use Static or Dynamic Address Assignment

        Guidelines for Assigning IP Addresses in the Enterprise Network

        Using DHCP to Assign IP Addresses

    Name Resolution

        Static Versus Dynamic Name Resolution

        When to Use Static or Dynamic Name Resolution

        Using DNS for Name Resolution

    DHCP and DNS Server Location in a Network

Introduction to IPv6

    IPv6 Features

    IPv6 Address Format

    IPv6 Address Types

        IPv6 Address Scope Types

        Interface Identifiers in IPv6 Addresses

        IPv6 Unicast Addresses

        Global Aggregatable Unicast Addresses

        Link-Local Unicast Addresses

    IPv6 Address Assignment Strategies

        Static IPv6 Address Assignment

        Dynamic IPv6 Address Assignment

    IPv6 Name Resolution

        Static and Dynamic IPv6 Name Resolution

        IPv4- and IPv6-Aware Applications and Name Resolution

    IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition Strategies and Deployments

        Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6

        IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition

        Dual-Stack Transition Mechanism

        Tunneling Transition Mechanism

        Translation Transition Mechanism

    IPv6 Routing Protocols


        EIGRP for IPv6


        Integrated IS-IS Version 6




Case Study: ACMC Hospital IP Addressing Design

Review Questions

Chapter 7 Selecting Routing Protocols for the Network

Routing Protocol Features

    Static Versus Dynamic Routing

        Static Routing

        Dynamic Routing

    Interior Versus Exterior Routing Protocols

        IGP and EGP Example

    Distance Vector Versus Link-State Versus Hybrid Protocols

        Distance Vector Example

        Link-State Example

    Routing Protocol Metrics

        What Is a Routing Metric?

        Metrics Used by Routing Protocols

    Routing Protocol Convergence

        RIPv2 Convergence Example

        Comparison of Routing Protocol Convergence

    Flat Versus Hierarchical Routing Protocols

        Flat Routing Protocols

        Hierarchical Routing Protocols

Routing Protocols for the Enterprise


        EIGRP Terminology

        EIGRP Characteristics


        OSPF Hierarchical Design

        OSPF Characteristics

    Integrated IS-IS

        Integrated IS-IS Terminology

        Integrated IS-IS Characteristics

    Summary of Interior Routing Protocol Features

    Selecting an Appropriate Interior Routing Protocol

        When to Choose EIGRP

        When to Choose OSPF

    Border Gateway Protocol

        BGP Implementation Example

        External and Internal BGP

Routing Protocol Deployment

    Routing Protocols in the Enterprise Architecture

        Routing in the Campus Core

        Routing in the Building Distribution Layer

        Routing in the Building Access Layer

        Routing in the Enterprise Edge Modules

    Route Redistribution

        Using Route Redistribution

        Administrative Distance

        Selecting the Best Route

        Route Redistribution Direction

        Route Redistribution Planning

        Route Redistribution in the Enterprise Architecture

    Route Filtering

    Redistributing and Filtering with BGP

    Route Summarization

        The Benefits of Route Summarization

        Recommended Practice: Summarize at the Distribution Layer

        Recommended Practice: Passive Interfaces for IGP at the Access Layer



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Routing Protocol Design

Review Questions

Chapter 8 Voice Network Design Considerations

Traditional Voice Architectures and Features

    Analog and Digital Signaling

        The Analog-to-Digital Process

        Time-Division Multiplexing in PSTN

    PBXs and the PSTN

        Differences Between a PBX and a PSTN Switch

        PBX Features

        PSTN Switches

    Local Loops, Trunks, and Interswitch Communications

    Telephony Signaling

        Telephony Signaling Types

        Analog Telephony Signaling

        Digital Telephony Signaling

    PSTN Numbering Plans

        International Numbering Plans

        Call Routing

        Numbering Plans

Integrating Voice Architectures

    Introduction to Integrated Networks

        Drivers for Integrating Voice and Data Networks


        Introduction to H.323

        H.323 Components

        H.323 Example

    Introduction to IP Telephony

        IP Telephony Design Goals

        Single-Site IP Telephony Design

        Multisite WAN with Centralized Call Processing Design

        Multisite WAN with Distributed Call Processing Design

    Call Control and Transport Protocols

        Voice Conversation Protocols

        Call Control Functions with H.323

        Call Control Functions with the Skinny Client Control Protocol

        Call Control Functions with SIP

        Call Control Functions with MGCP

Voice Issues and Requirements

    Voice Quality Issues

        Packet Delays

        Fixed Network Delays

        Variable Network Delays


        Packet Loss


    Voice Coding and Compression

        Coding and Compression Algorithms

        Voice Coding Standards (Codecs)

        Sound Quality

        Codec Complexity, DSPs, and Voice Calls

    Bandwidth Considerations

        Reducing the Amount of Voice Traffic

        Voice Bandwidth Requirements

        Codec Design Considerations

    QoS for Voice

        Bandwidth Provisioning

        Signaling Techniques

        Classification and Marking

        Congestion Avoidance

        Traffic Policing and Shaping

        Congestion Management: Queuing and Scheduling

        Link Efficiency


        Building Access Layer QoS Mechanisms for Voice


Introduction to Voice Traffic Engineering


        Blocking Probability and GoS



        Busy Hour and BHT


    Erlang Tables

        Erlang B Table

        Erlang Examples

        Trunk Capacity Calculation Example

        Off-Net Calls Cost Calculation Example

    Calculating Trunk Capacity or Bandwidth

    Cisco IP Communications Return on Investment Calculator



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network Voice Design

    Case Study Additional Information

    Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 9 Wireless Network Design Considerations

Introduction to Wireless Technology

    RF Theory

        Phenomena Affecting RF

        RF Math


    Agencies and Standards Groups

    IEEE 802.11 Operational Standards

        IEEE 802.11b/g Standards in the 2.4 GHz Band

        802.11a Standard in the 5-GHz Band

        802.11 WLANs Versus 802.3 Ethernet LANs

    WLAN Topologies

    WLAN Components

        Cisco-Compatible WLAN Clients

        Autonomous APs

        Lightweight APs

        AP Power

    WLAN Operation

    WLAN Security

The Cisco Unified Wireless Network

    The Cisco UWN Architecture

        Cisco UWN Elements

        Cisco UWN Lightweight AP and WLC Operation

        Cisco UWN Wireless Authentication and Encryption

    LWAPP Fundamentals

        Layer 2 LWAPP Architecture

        Layer 3 LWAPP Architecture

    WLAN Controllers

        WLC Terminology

        WLC Interfaces

        WLC Platforms

        Access Point Support Scalability

    Lightweight APs

        Lightweight AP Discovery and Join Process

        Lightweight AP and WLC Control Messages

        Access Point Modes

    Mobility in a Cisco Unified Wireless Network

        Intracontroller Roaming

        Intercontroller Roaming at Layer 2

        Intercontroller Roaming at Layer 3

        Mobility Groups

        Recommended Practices for Supporting Roaming

    Radio Resource Management and RF Groups

        Radio Resource Management

        RF Grouping

        AP Self-Healing

    Cisco UWN Review

Designing Wireless Networks with Lightweight Access Points and Wireless LAN Controllers

    RF Site Survey

        RF Site Survey Process

        Define the Customer Requirements

        Identify Coverage Areas and User Density

        Determine Preliminary AP Locations

        Perform the Actual Survey

        Document the Findings

    Controller Redundancy Design

        Dynamic Controller Redundancy

        Deterministic Controller Redundancy

        Deterministic Redundancy Options

    Design Considerations for Guest Services in Wireless Networks

    Design Considerations for Outdoor Wireless Networks

        Wireless Mesh Components

        MAP-to-RAP Connectivity

        Mesh Design Recommendations

    Design Considerations for Campus Wireless Networks

        Common Wireless Design Questions

        Controller Placement Design

        Campus Controller Options

    Design Considerations for Branch Office Wireless Networks

        Branch Office Considerations

        Local MAC


        Hybrid REAP

        Branch Office WLAN Controller Options



Case Study: ACMC Hospital UWN Considerations

Review Questions

Chapter 10 Evaluating Security Solutions for the Network

Network Security

    The Need for Network Security

        Network Security Requirements

        Security Legislation Examples

    Terminology Related to Security

    Threats and Risks

        Threat: Reconnaissance Attacks

        Threat: Gaining Unauthorized Access to Systems

        Threat: DoS

        Risk: Integrity Violations and Confidentiality Breaches

    Network Security Policy and Process

        Security Policy

        The Need for a Security Policy

        Risk Assessment and Management

        Documenting the Security Policy

        Network Security Process

The Cisco Self-Defending Network

    The Cisco Self-Defending Network Framework

        Secure Network Platform

        Cisco Self-Defending Network Phases

    Trust and Identity Management



        Access Control

        Trust and Identity Management Technologies

        Identity and Access Control Deployment

    Threat Defense

        Physical Security

        Infrastructure Protection

        Threat Detection and Mitigation

    Secure Connectivity

        Encryption Fundamentals

        VPN Protocols

        Transmission Confidentiality: Ensuring Privacy

        Maintaining Data Integrity

    Security Management

        Cisco Security Management Technologies

Network Security Solutions

    Integrated Security Within Network Devices

        Cisco IOS Router Security

        Security Appliances


        Catalyst Services Modules

        Endpoint Security Solutions

    Securing the Enterprise Network

        Deploying Security in the Enterprise Campus

        Deploying Security in the Enterprise Data Center

        Deploying Security in the Enterprise Edge



Case Study 10-1: ACMC Hospital Network Security Design

    Case Study Questions

Case Study 10-2: ACMC Hospital Network—Connecting More Hospitals

    Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Appendix A Answers to Review Questions and Case Studies

Appendix B IPv4 Supplement

Appendix C Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model

Appendix D Network Address Translation

Acronyms and Abbreviations


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  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020