## Numbers

The common data types used for numbers include the following:

Integers

Floats

### Integers

An *integer* (also known as int) is a positive or negative whole number (a number with no decimal points or fractions). For example, the following are positive integers: 3, 4096, and 65535. The following are negative integers (–2, –64, and –98765). What about 0? It’s also an integer.

The **INT** function in most programming languages drops the decimal or fractional value of a number such as 3.6 and leaves only the whole value (in this case, 3). This can be useful to obtain a whole number value after randomizing a range of numbers. The following example is written in Perl:

my $randnum = int(rand(100)); # int(rand(100)) discards decimal portion of randomized number print "Here's a random number between 0 and 100: $randnum\n";

### Floats

A *float* (also known as floating-point number) is a number that contains up to seven digits and has at least one decimal place. For example, the following are floats:

5.56

.0275687

3.14159

.303

A float is a single-precision, floating-point, 32-bit value.

Floats can also be expressed using powers of ten or powers of two. This way, a fixed number of digits can be used to express a very wide range of numeric values. Here are some examples:

93.1×10

^{5}= 9,310,00093.1×10

^{-5}= 0.00093193.1×10

^{16}= 931,000,000,000,000,00093.1×10

^{-16}= 0.0000000000000093147.67×2

^{12}= 47,670,000,000,00047.67×2

^{-12}= 0.00000000004767

Singe-precision and double-precision floating point numbers are actually approximations of the true value of a number because of the rounding that takes place when non-integer numbers are used. The floating-point calculator at https://www.exploringbinary.com/floating-point-converter/ demonstrates this fact.