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Scaling Networks v6 Companion Guide

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Scaling Networks v6 Companion Guide

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About

Features

  • Portable desk reference for take-home sutdy and reference anytime, anywhere
  • Aligns to the online course chapters
  • Book-based pedagogy that serves as additional reinforcement in helping students learn the topics covered in the course

Description

  • Copyright 2018
  • Dimensions: 8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 672
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 1-58713-434-9
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58713-434-0

Scaling Networks v6 Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Scaling Networks v6 course in the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA Routing and Switching curriculum.

The Companion Guide is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere to reinforce the material from the course and organize your time.

The book’s features help you focus on important concepts to succeed in this course:

·         Chapter objectives–Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.

·         Key terms–Refer to the lists of networking vocabulary introduced and highlighted in context in each chapter.

·         Glossary–Consult the comprehensive Glossary with more than 250 terms.

·         Summary of Activities and Labs–Maximize your study time with this complete list of all associated practice exercises at the end of each chapter.

·         Check Your Understanding–Evaluate your readiness with the end-of-chapter questions that match the style of questions you see in the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer.

How To–Look for this icon to study the steps you need to learn to perform certain tasks.

Interactive Activities–Reinforce your understanding of topics with dozens of exercises from the online course identified throughout the book with this icon.

Videos–Watch the videos embedded within the online course.

Packet Tracer Activities–Explore and visualize networking concepts using Packet Tracer exercises interspersed throughout the chapters and provided in the accompanying Labs & Study Guide book.

Hands-on Labs–Work through all the course labs and additional Class Activities that are included in the course and published in the separate Labs & Study Guide.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Introduction xx

Chapter 1 LAN Design 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1.1) 3

Campus Wired LAN Designs (1.1) 4

    Cisco Validated Designs (1.1.1) 4

        The Need to Scale the Network (1.1.1.1) 4

        Hierarchical Design Model (1.1.1.2) 6

    Expanding the Network (1.1.2) 8

        Design for Scalability (1.1.2.1) 8

        Planning for Redundancy (1.1.2.2) 10

        Failure Domains (1.1.2.3) 11

        Increasing Bandwidth (1.1.2.4) 13

        Expanding the Access Layer (1.1.2.5) 14

        Fine-tuning Routing Protocols (1.1.2.6) 15

Selecting Network Devices (1.2) 17

    Switch Hardware (1.2.1) 17

        Switch Platforms (1.2.1.1) 17

        Port Density (1.2.1.2) 21

        Forwarding Rates (1.2.1.3) 22

        Power over Ethernet (1.2.1.4) 23

        Multilayer Switching (1.2.1.5) 24

    Router Hardware (1.2.2) 26

        Router Requirements (1.2.2.1) 26

        Cisco Routers (1.2.2.2) 27

        Router Hardware (1.2.2.3) 28

    Managing Devices (1.2.3) 29

        Managing IOS Files and Licensing (1.2.3.1) 30

        In-Band versus Out-of-Band Management (1.2.3.2) 30

        Basic Router CLI Commands (1.2.3.3) 31

        Basic Router Show Commands (1.2.3.4) 34

        Basic Switch CLI Commands (1.2.3.5) 38

        Basic Switch Show Commands (1.2.3.6) 40

Summary (1.3) 43

Practice 44

Check Your Understanding Questions 45

Chapter 2 Scaling VLANs 47

Objectives 47

Key Terms 47

Introduction (2.0.1.1) 48

VTP, Extended VLANs, and DTP (2.1) 48

    VTP Concepts and Operation (2.1.1) 49

        VTP Overview (2.1.1.1) 49

        VTP Modes (2.1.1.2) 50

        VTP Advertisements (2.1.1.3) 52

        VTP Versions (2.1.1.4) 53

        Default VTP Configuration (2.1.1.5) 53

        VTP Caveats (2.1.1.6) 55

    VTP Configuration (2.1.2) 57

        VTP Configuration Overview (2.1.2.1) 57

        Step 1–Configure the VTP Server (2.1.2.2) 58

        Step 2–Configure the VTP Domain Name and Password (2.1.2.3) 59

        Step 3–Configure the VTP Clients (2.1.2.4) 60

        Step 4–Configure VLANs on the VTP Server (2.1.2.5) 60

        Step 5–Verify That the VTP Clients Have Received the New VLAN Information (2.1.2.6) 62

    Extended VLANs (2.1.3) 63

        VLAN Ranges on Catalyst Switches (2.1.3.1) 63

        Creating a VLAN (2.1.3.2) 65

        Assigning Ports to VLANs (2.1.3.3) 66

        Verifying VLAN Information (2.1.3.4) 67

        Configuring Extended VLANs (2.1.3.5) 69

    Dynamic Trunking Protocol (2.1.4) 71

        Introduction to DTP (2.1.4.1) 71

        Negotiated Interface Modes (2.1.4.2) 72

Troubleshoot Multi-VLAN Issues (2.2) 75

    Inter-VLAN Configuration Issues (2.2.1) 75

        Deleting VLANs (2.2.1.1) 75

        Switch Port Issues (2.2.1.2) 77

        Verify Switch Configuration (2.2.1.3) 79

        Interface Issues (2.2.1.4) 81

        Verify Routing Configuration (2.2.1.5) 82

    IP Addressing Issues (2.2.2) 83

        Errors with IP Addresses and Subnet Masks (2.2.2.1) 83

        Verifying IP Address and Subnet Mask Configuration Issues (2.2.2.2) 85

    VTP and DTP Issues (2.2.3) 88

        Troubleshoot VTP Issues (2.2.3.1) 88

        Troubleshoot DTP Issues (2.2.3.2) 89

Layer 3 Switching (2.3) 89

    Layer 3 Switching Operation and Configuration (2.3.1) 90

        Introduction to Layer 3 Switching (2.3.1.1) 90

        Inter-VLAN Routing with Switch Virtual Interfaces (2.3.1.2) 91

        Inter-VLAN Routing with Switch Virtual Interfaces (Con’t.) (2.3.1.3) 92

        Inter-VLAN Routing with Routed Ports (2.3.1.4) 94

    Troubleshoot Layer 3 Switching (2.3.2) 95

        Layer 3 Switch Configuration Issues (2.3.2.1) 95

        Example: Troubleshooting Layer 3 Switching (2.3.2.2) 96

Summary (2.4) 99

Practice 99

Check Your Understanding Questions 100

Chapter 3 STP 105

Objectives 105

Key Terms 105

Introduction (3.0.1.1) 107

Spanning Tree Concepts (3.1) 108

    Purpose of Spanning Tree (3.1.1) 108

        Redundancy at OSI Layers 1 and 2 (3.1.1.1) 108

        Issues with Layer 1 Redundancy: MAC Database Instability (3.1.1.2) 109

        Issues with Layer 1 Redundancy: Broadcast Storms (3.1.1.3) 111

        Issues with Layer 1 Redundancy: Duplicate Unicast Frames (3.1.1.4) 113

    STP Operation (3.1.2) 114

        Spanning Tree Algorithm: Introduction (3.1.2.1) 114

        Spanning Tree Algorithm: Port Roles (3.1.2.2) 117

        Spanning Tree Algorithm: Root Bridge (3.1.2.3) 119

        Spanning Tree Algorithm: Root Path Cost (3.1.2.4) 121

        Port Role Decisions for RSTP (3.1.2.5) 124

        Designated and Alternate Ports (3.1.2.6) 127

        802.1D BPDU Frame Format (3.1.2.7) 128

        802.1D BPDU Propagation and Process (3.1.2.8) 131

        Extended System ID (3.1.2.9) 136

Varieties of Spanning Tree Protocols (3.2) 140

    Overview (3.2.1) 140

        Types of Spanning Tree Protocols (3.2.1.1) 140

        Characteristics of the Spanning Tree Protocols (3.2.1.2) 141

    PVST+ (3.2.2) 143

        Overview of PVST+ (3.2.2.1) 143

        Port States and PVST+ Operation (3.2.2.2) 144

        Extended System ID and PVST+ Operation (3.2.2.3) 146

    Rapid PVST+ (3.2.3) 148

        Overview of Rapid PVST+ (3.2.3.1) 148

        RSTP BPDUs (3.2.3.2) 149

        Edge Ports (3.2.3.3) 150

        Link Types (3.2.3.4) 152

Spanning Tree Configuration (3.3) 153

    PVST+ Configuration (3.3.1) 153

        Catalyst 2960 Default Configuration (3.3.1.1) 153

        Configuring and Verifying the Bridge ID (3.3.1.2) 154

        PortFast and BPDU Guard (3.3.1.3) 156

        PVST+ Load Balancing (3.3.1.4) 158

    Rapid PVST+ Configuration (3.3.2) 160

        Spanning Tree Mode (3.3.2.1) 161

    STP Configuration Issues (3.3.3) 163

        Analyzing the STP Topology (3.3.3.1) 164

        Expected Topology versus Actual Topology (3.3.3.2) 164

        Overview of Spanning Tree Status (3.3.3.3) 165

        Spanning Tree Failure Consequences (3.3.3.4) 166

        Repairing a Spanning Tree Problem (3.3.3.5) 169

    Switch Stacking and Chassis Aggregation (3.3.4) 169

        Switch Stacking Concepts (3.3.4.1) 169

        Spanning Tree and Switch Stacks (3.3.4.2) 170

Summary (3.4) 173

Practice 174

Check Your Understanding Questions 174

Chapter 4 EtherChannel and HSRP 179

Objectives 179

Key Terms 179

Introduction (4.0.1.1) 180

Link Aggregation Concepts (4.1) 181

    Link Aggregation (4.1.1) 181

        Introduction to Link Aggregation (4.1.1.1) 181

        Advantages of EtherChannel (4.1.1.2) 182

    EtherChannel Operation (4.1.2) 183

        Implementation Restrictions (4.1.2.1) 183

        Port Aggregation Protocol (4.1.2.2) 185

        Link Aggregation Control Protocol (4.1.2.3) 186

Link Aggregation Configuration (4.2) 188

    Configuring EtherChannel (4.2.1) 188

        Configuration Guidelines (4.2.1.1) 188

        Configuring Interfaces (4.2.1.2) 189

    Verifying and Troubleshooting EtherChannel (4.2.2) 191

        Verifying EtherChannel (4.2.2.1) 191

        Troubleshooting EtherChannel (4.2.2.2) 194

First Hop Redundancy Protocols (4.3) 198

    Concept of First Hop Redundancy Protocols (4.3.1) 198

        Default Gateway Limitations (4.3.1.1) 198

        Router Redundancy (4.3.1.2) 199

        Steps for Router Failover (4.3.1.3) 200

        First Hop Redundancy Protocols (4.3.1.5) 201

    HSRP Operations (4.3.2) 202

        HSRP Overview (4.3.2.1) 203

        HSRP Versions (4.3.2.2) 204

        HSRP Priority and Preemption (4.3.2.3) 204

        HSRP States and Timers (4.3.2.4) 205

    HSRP Configuration (4.3.3) 206

        HSRP Configuration Commands (4.3.3.1) 206

        HSRP Sample Configuration (4.3.3.2) 207

        HSRP Verification (4.3.3.3) 208

    HSRP Troubleshooting (4.3.4) 209

        HSRP Failure (4.3.4.1) 209

        HSRP Debug Commands (4.3.4.2) 210

        Common HSRP Configuration Issues (4.3.4.3) 213

Summary (4.4) 214

Practice 215

Check Your Understanding Questions 216

Chapter 5 Dynamic Routing 219

Objectives 219

Key Terms 219

Introduction (5.0.1.1) 221

Dynamic Routing Protocols (5.1) 222

    Types of Routing Protocols (5.1.1) 222

        Classifying Routing Protocols (5.1.1.1) 222

        IGP and EGP Routing Protocols (5.1.1.2) 224

        Distance Vector Routing Protocols (5.1.1.3) 226

        Link-State Routing Protocols (5.1.1.4) 226

        Classful Routing Protocols (5.1.1.5) 228

        Classless Routing Protocols (5.1.1.6) 231

        Routing Protocol Characteristics (5.1.1.7) 233

        Routing Protocol Metrics (5.1.1.8) 234

Distance Vector Dynamic Routing (5.2) 236

    Distance Vector Fundamentals (5.2.1) 236

        Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation (5.2.1.1) 236

        Cold Start (5.2.1.2) 237

        Network Discovery (5.2.1.3) 238

        Exchanging the Routing Information (5.2.1.4) 239

        Achieving Convergence (5.2.1.5) 241

    Distance Vector Routing Protocol Operation (5.2.2) 242

        Distance Vector Technologies (5.2.2.1) 242

        Distance Vector Algorithm (5.2.2.2) 242

    Types of Distance Vector Routing Protocols (5.2.3) 245

        Routing Information Protocol (5.2.3.1) 245

        Enhanced Interior-Gateway Routing Protocol (5.2.3.2) 246

Link-State Dynamic Routing (5.3) 248

    Link-State Routing Protocol Operation (5.3.1) 248

        Shortest Path First Protocols (5.3.1.1) 248

        Dijkstra’s Algorithm (5.3.1.2) 248

        SPF Example (5.3.1.3) 249

    Link-State Updates (5.3.2) 251

        Link-State Routing Process (5.3.2.1) 251

        Link and Link-State (5.3.2.2) 252

        Say Hello (5.3.2.3) 256

        Building the Link-State Packet (5.3.2.4) 257

        Flooding the LSP (5.3.2.5) 258

        Building the Link-State Database (5.3.2.6) 259

        Building the SPF Tree (5.3.2.7) 260

        Adding OSPF Routes to the Routing Table (5.3.2.8) 264

    Link-State Routing Protocol Benefits (5.3.3) 264

        Why Use Link-State Protocols? (5.3.3.1) 264

        Disadvantages of Link-State Protocols (5.3.3.2) 265

        Protocols That Use Link-State (5.3.3.3) 267

Summary (5.4) 268

Practice 269

Check Your Understanding Questions 269

Chapter 6 EIGRP 273

Objectives 273

Key Terms 273

Introduction (6.0.1.1) 274

EIGRP Characteristics (6.1) 274

    EIGRP Basic Features (6.1.1) 274

        Features of EIGRP (6.1.1.1) 274

        Protocol Dependent Modules (6.1.1.2) 276

        Reliable Transport Protocol (6.1.1.3) 278

        Authentication (6.1.1.4) 279

    EIGRP Packet Types (6.1.2) 279

        EIGRP Packet Types (6.1.2.1) 279

        EIGRP Hello Packets (6.1.2.2) 280

        EIGRP Update and Acknowledgment Packets (6.1.2.3) 281

        EIGRP Query and Reply Packets (6.1.2.4) 283

    EIGRP Messages (6.1.3) 284

        Encapsulating EIGRP Messages (6.1.3.1) 284

        EIGRP Packet Header and TLV (6.1.3.2) 285

Implement EIGRP for IPv4 (6.2) 289

    Configure EIGRP with IPv4 (6.2.1) 289

        EIGRP Network Topology (6.2.1.1) 289

        Autonomous System Numbers (6.2.1.2) 291

        The router eigrp Command (6.2.1.3) 292

        EIGRP Router ID (6.2.1.4) 293

        Configuring the EIGRP Router ID (6.2.1.5) 295

        The network Command (6.2.1.6) 296

        The network Command and Wildcard Mask (6.2.1.7) 298

        Passive Interface (6.2.1.8) 300

    Verify EIGRP with IPv4 (6.2.2) 302

        Verifying EIGRP: Examining Neighbors (6.2.2.1) 302

        Verifying EIGRP: show ip protocols Command (6.2.2.2) 304

        Verifying EIGRP: Examine the IPv4 Routing Table (6.2.2.3) 306

EIGRP Operation (6.3) 309

    EIGRP Initial Route Discovery (6.3.1) 309

        EIGRP Neighbor Adjacency (6.3.1.1) 310

        EIGRP Topology Table (6.3.1.2) 311

        EIGRP Convergence (6.3.1.3) 312

    EIGRP Metrics (6.3.2) 313

        EIGRP Composite Metric (6.3.2.1) 313

        Examining Interface Metric Values (6.3.2.2) 315

        Bandwidth Metric (6.3.2.3) 316

        Delay Metric (6.3.2.4) 319

        How to Calculate the EIGRP Metric (6.3.2.5) 320

        Calculating the EIGRP Metric (6.3.2.6) 321

    DUAL and the Topology Table (6.3.3) 323

        DUAL Concepts (6.3.3.1) 323

        Introduction to DUAL (6.3.3.2) 324

        Successor and Feasible Distance (6.3.3.3) 324

        Feasible Successors, Feasibility Condition, and

        Reported Distance (6.3.3.4) 326

        Topology Table: show ip eigrp topology Command (6.3.3.5) 328

        Topology Table: show ip eigrp topology Command (Cont.) (6.3.3.6) 329

        Topology Table: No Feasible Successor (6.3.3.7) 332

    DUAL and Convergence (6.3.4) 334

        DUAL Finite State Machine (FSM) (6.3.4.1) 334

        DUAL: Feasible Successor (6.3.4.2) 335

        DUAL: No Feasible Successor (6.3.4.3) 338

Implement EIGRP for IPv6 (6.4) 341

    EIGRP for IPv6 (6.4.1) 341

        EIGRP for IPv6 (6.4.1.1) 341

        Compare EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6 (6.4.1.2) 342

        IPv6 Link-local Addresses (6.4.1.3) 344

    Configure EIGRP for IPv6 (6.4.2) 345

        EIGRP for IPv6 Network Topology (6.4.2.1) 345

        Configuring IPv6 Link-local Addresses (6.4.2.2) 347

        Configuring the EIGRP for IPv6 Routing Process (6.4.2.3) 349

        The ipv6 eigrp Interface Command (6.4.2.4) 350

    Verifying EIGRP for IPv6 (6.4.3) 352

        IPv6 Neighbor Table (6.4.3.1) 352

        The show ip protocols Command (6.4.3.2) 354

        The EIGRP for IPv6 Routing Table (6.4.3.3) 355

Summary (6.5) 358

Practice 359

Check Your Understanding Questions 360

Chapter 7 EIGRP Tuning and Troubleshooting 365

Objectives 365

Key Terms 365

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 366

Tune EIGRP (7.1) 366

    Automatic Summarization (7.1.1) 366

        Network Topology (7.1.1.1) 367

        EIGRP Automatic Summarization (7.1.1.2) 369

        Configuring EIGRP Automatic Summarization (7.1.1.3) 371

        Verifying Auto-Summary: show ip protocols (7.1.1.4) 372

        Verifying Auto-Summary: Topology Table (7.1.1.5) 375

        Verifying Auto-Summary: Routing Table (7.1.1.6) 376

        Summary Route (7.1.1.7) 378

        Summary Route (Cont.) (7.1.1.8) 379

    Default Route Propagation (7.1.2) 380

        Propagating a Default Static Route (7.1.2.1) 380

        Verifying the Propagated Default Route (7.1.2.2) 382

        EIGRP for IPv6: Default Route (7.1.2.3) 383

    Fine-tuning EIGRP Interfaces (7.1.3) 384

        EIGRP Bandwidth Utilization (7.1.3.1) 385

        Hello and Hold Timers (7.1.3.2) 386

        Load Balancing IPv4 (7.1.3.3) 388

        Load Balancing IPv6 (7.1.3.4) 390

Troubleshoot EIGRP (7.2) 392

    Components of Troubleshooting EIGRP (7.2.1) 392

        Basic EIGRP Troubleshooting Commands (7.2.1.1) 392

        Components (7.2.1.2) 394

    Troubleshoot EIGRP Neighbor Issues (7.2.2) 397

        Layer 3 Connectivity (7.2.2.1) 397

        EIGRP Parameters (7.2.2.2) 398

        EIGRP Interfaces (7.2.2.3) 399

    Troubleshoot EIGRP Routing Table Issues (7.2.3) 401

        Passive Interface (7.2.3.1) 401

        Missing Network Statement (7.2.3.2) 403

        Autosummarization (7.2.3.3) 405

Summary (7.3) 410

Practice 411

Check Your Understanding Questions 412

Chapter 8 Single-Area OSPF 415

Objectives 415

Key Terms 415

Introduction (8.0.1.1) 416

OSPF Characteristics (8.1) 416

    Open Shortest Path First (8.1.1) 416

        Evolution of OSPF (8.1.1.1) 417

        Features of OSPF (8.1.1.2) 418

        Components of OSPF (8.1.1.3) 419

        Link-State Operation (8.1.1.4) 420

        Single-Area and Multiarea OSPF (8.1.1.5) 424

    OSPF Messages (8.1.2) 426

        Encapsulating OSPF Messages (8.1.2.1) 426

        Types of OSPF Packets (8.1.2.2) 428

        Hello Packet (8.1.2.3) 428

        Hello Packet Intervals (8.1.2.4) 430

        Link-State Updates (8.1.2.5) 430

    OSPF Operation (8.1.3) 431

        OSPF Operational States (8.1.3.1) 432

        Establish Neighbor Adjacencies (8.1.3.2) 433

        OSPF DR and BDR (8.1.3.3) 435

        Synchronizing OSPF Databases (8.1.3.4) 438

Single-Area OSPFv2 (8.2) 440

    OSPF Router ID (8.2.1) 441

        OSPF Network Topology (8.2.1.1) 441

        Router OSPF Configuration Mode (8.2.1.2) 442

        Router IDs (8.2.1.3) 442

        Configuring an OSPF Router ID (8.2.1.4) 444

        Modifying a Router ID (8.2.1.5) 445

        Using a Loopback Interface as the Router ID (8.2.1.6) 447

    Configure Single-Area OSPFv2 (8.2.2) 448

        Enabling OSPF on Interfaces (8.2.2.1) 448

        Wildcard Mask (8.2.2.2) 448

        The network Command (8.2.2.3) 449

        Passive Interface (8.2.2.4) 450

        Configuring Passive Interfaces (8.2.2.5) 451

    OSPF Cost (8.2.3) 453

        OSPF Metric = Cost (8.2.3.1) 454

        OSPF Accumulates Costs (8.2.3.2) 455

        Adjusting the Reference Bandwidth (8.2.3.3) 456

        Default Interface Bandwidths (8.2.3.4) 460

        Adjusting the Interface Bandwidth (8.2.3.5) 462

        Manually Setting the OSPF Cost (8.2.3.6) 463

    Verify OSPF (8.2.4) 464

        Verify OSPF Neighbors (8.2.4.1) 465

        Verify OSPF Protocol Settings (8.2.4.2) 466

        Verify OSPF Process Information (8.2.4.3) 466

        Verify OSPF Interface Settings (8.2.4.4) 468

Single-Area OSPFv3 (8.3) 469

    OSPFv2 vs. OSPFv3 (8.3.1) 469

        OSPFv3 (8.3.1.1) 469

        Similarities Between OSPFv2 to OSPFv3 (8.3.1.2) 471

        Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 (8.3.1.3) 471

        Link-Local Addresses (8.3.1.4) 472

    Configuring OSPFv3 (8.3.2) 473

        OSPFv3 Network Topology (8.3.2.1) 473

        Link-Local Addresses (8.3.2.2) 475

        Assigning Link-Local Addresses (8.3.2.3) 476

        Configuring the OSPFv3 Router ID (8.3.2.4) 477

        Modifying an OSPFv3 Router ID (8.3.2.5) 479

        Enabling OSPFv3 on Interfaces (8.3.2.6) 481

    Verify OSPFv3 (8.3.3) 481

        Verify OSPFv3 Neighbors (8.3.3.1) 482

        Verify OSPFv3 Protocol Settings (8.3.3.2) 483

        Verify OSPFv3 Interfaces (8.3.3.3) 483

        Verify the IPv6 Routing Table (8.3.3.4) 484

Summary (8.4) 486

Practice 487

Check Your Understanding Questions 488

Chapter 9 Multiarea OSPF 493

Objectives 493

Key Terms 493

Introduction (9.0.1.1) 494

Multiarea OSPF Operation (9.1) 494

    Why Multiarea OSPF? (9.1.1) 494

        Single-Area OSPF (9.1.1.1) 494

        Multiarea OSPF (9.1.1.2) 495

        OSPF Two-Layer Area Hierarchy (9.1.1.3) 498

        Types of OSPF Routers (9.1.1.4) 499

    Multiarea OSPF LSA Operation (9.1.2) 501

        OSPF LSA Types (9.1.2.1) 502

        OSPF LSA Type 1 (9.1.2.2) 502

        OSPF LSA Type 2 (9.1.2.3) 503

        OSPF LSA Type 3 (9.1.2.4) 504

        OSPF LSA Type 4 (9.1.2.5) 505

        OSPF LSA Type 5 (9.1.2.6) 506

    OSPF Routing Table and Types of Routes (9.1.3) 506

        OSPF Routing Table Entries (9.1.3.1) 507

        OSPF Route Calculation (9.1.3.2) 508

Configuring Multiarea OSPF (9.2) 509

    Configuring Multiarea OSPF (9.2.1) 510

        Implementing Multiarea OSPF (9.2.1.1) 510

        Configuring Multiarea OSPFv2 (9.2.1.2) 511

        Configuring Multiarea OSPFv3 (9.2.1.3) 513

    Verifying Multiarea OSPF (9.2.2) 515

        Verifying Multiarea OSPFv2 (9.2.2.1) 515

        Verify General Multiarea OSPFv2 Settings (9.2.2.2) 515

        Verify the OSPFv2 Routes (9.2.2.3) 516

        Verify the Multiarea OSPFv2 LSDB (9.2.2.4) 517

        Verify Multiarea OSPFv3 (9.2.2.5) 518

Summary (9.3) 522

Practice 523

Check Your Understanding Questions 524

Chapter 10 OSPF Tuning and Troubleshooting 527

Objectives 527

Key Terms 527

Introduction (10.0.1.1) 528

Advanced Single-Area OSPF Configurations (10.1) 528

    OSPF in Multiaccess Networks (10.1.1) 528

        OSPF Network Types (10.1.1.1) 528

        Challenges in Multiaccess Networks (10.1.1.2) 531

        OSPF Designated Router (10.1.1.3) 533

        Verifying DR/BDR Roles (10.1.1.4) 535

        Verifying DR/BDR Adjacencies (10.1.1.5) 538

        Default DR/BDR Election Process (10.1.1.6) 540

        DR/BDR Election Process (10.1.1.7) 541

        The OSPF Priority (10.1.1.8) 544

        Changing the OSPF Priority (10.1.1.9) 544

    Default Route Propagation (10.1.2) 547

        Propagating a Default Static Route in OSPFv2 (10.1.2.1) 547

        Verifying the Propagated IPv4 Default Route (10.1.2.2) 549

        Propagating a Default Static Route in OSPFv3 (10.1.2.3) 551

        Verifying the Propagated IPv6 Default Route (10.1.2.4) 552

    Fine-tuning OSPF Interfaces (10.1.3) 554

        OSPF Hello and Dead Intervals (10.1.3.1) 554

        Modifying OSPFv2 Intervals (10.1.3.2) 555

        Modifying OSPFv3 Intervals (10.1.3.3) 557

Troubleshooting Single-Area OSPF Implementations (10.2) 560

    Components of Troubleshooting Single-Area OSPF (10.2.1) 560

        Overview (10.2.1.1) 560

        OSPF States (10.2.1.2) 560

        OSPF Troubleshooting Commands (10.2.1.3) 562

        Components of Troubleshooting OSPF (10.2.1.4) 566

    Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPFv2 Routing Issues (10.2.2) 569

        Troubleshooting Neighbor Issues (10.2.2.1) 569

        Troubleshooting OSPFv2 Routing Table Issues (10.2.2.2) 573

    Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPFv3 Routing Issues (10.2.3) 576

        OSPFv3 Troubleshooting Commands (10.2.3.1) 576

        Troubleshooting OSPFv3 (10.2.3.2) 580

    Troubleshooting Multiarea OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 (10.2.4) 582

        Multiarea OSPF Troubleshooting Skills (10.2.4.1) 582

        Multiarea OSPF Troubleshooting Data Structures (10.2.4.2) 583

Summary (10.3) 585

Practice 587

Check Your Understanding Questions 587

Appendix A Answers to the Review Questions 591

Glossary 603

9781587134340   TOC   7/18/2017

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