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Practical Guide to Computer Forensics Investigations, A

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Practical Guide to Computer Forensics Investigations, A

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About

Features

  • Practical information from the author's personal experience working with law enforcement
  • Delves into the not-widely-understood areas of Mac forensics and mobile forensics
  • Includes hands-on activities, uncommon for most computer forensics books

Description

  • Copyright 2015
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 600
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-7897-4115-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-4115-8

All you need to know to succeed in digital forensics: technical and investigative skills, in one book

Complete, practical, and up-to-date

Thoroughly covers digital forensics for Windows, Mac, mobile, hardware, and networks

Addresses online and lab investigations, documentation, admissibility, and more

By Dr. Darren Hayes, founder of Pace University’s Code Detectives forensics lab–one of America’s “Top 10 Computer Forensics Professors”

Perfect for anyone pursuing a digital forensics career or working with examiners

Criminals go where the money is. Today, trillions of dollars of assets are digital, and digital crime is growing fast. In response, demand for digital forensics experts is soaring. To succeed in this exciting field, you need strong technical and investigative skills. In this guide, one of the world’s leading computer orensics experts teaches you all the skills you’ll need.

Writing for students and professionals at all levels, Dr. Darren Hayes presents complete best practices for capturing and analyzing evidence, protecting the chain of custody, documenting investigations, and scrupulously adhering to the law, so your evidence can always be used.

Hayes introduces today’s latest technologies and technical challenges, offering detailed coverage of crucial topics such as mobile forensics, Mac forensics, cyberbullying, and child endangerment.

This guide’s practical activities and case studies give you hands-on mastery of modern digital forensics tools and techniques. Its many realistic examples reflect the author’s extensive and pioneering work as a forensics examiner in both criminal and civil investigations.

  • Understand what computer forensics examiners do, and the types of digital evidence they work with
  • Explore Windows and Mac computers, understand how their features affect evidence gathering, and use free tools to investigate their contents
  • Extract data from diverse storage devices
  • Establish a certified forensics lab and implement good practices for managing and processing evidence
  • Gather data and perform investigations online
  • Capture Internet communications, video, images, and other content
  • Write comprehensive reports that withstand defense objections and enable successful prosecution
  • Follow strict search and surveillance rules to make your evidence admissible
  • Investigate network breaches, including dangerous Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs)
  • Retrieve immense amounts of evidence from smartphones, even without seizing them
  • Successfully investigate financial fraud performed with digital devices
  • Use digital photographic evidence, including metadata and social media images

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

Handling Computer Hardware in a Computer Forensics Investigation

Sample Pages

Download the sample pages (includes Chapter 9 and Index)

Table of Contents

Introduction xx

Chapter 1: The Scope of Computer Forensics 2

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

        Popular Myths about Computer Forensics.. . . . . . . 3

    Types of Computer Forensics Evidence Recovered.. . . . . . 5

        Electronic Mail (Email).. . . . . . . . . . . 5

        Images.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

        Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

        Websites Visited and Internet Searches.. . . . . . . 9

        Cellphone Forensics.. . . . . . . . . . . 10

    What Skills Must a Computer Forensics Investigator Possess?.. . . 10

        Computer Science Knowledge. . . . . . . . . 10

        Legal Expertise.. . . . . . . . . . . . 11

        Communication Skills.. . . . . . . . . . . 11

        Linguistic Abilities.. . . . . . . . . . . 11

        Continuous Learning.. . . . . . . . . . . 11

        An Appreciation for Confidentiality. . . . . . . . 12

    The Importance of Computer Forensics.. . . . . . . . 12

        Job Opportunities.. . . . . . . . . . . 12

    A History of Computer Forensics.. . . . . . . . . 14

        1980s: The Advent of the Personal Computer.. . . . . . 14

        1990s: The Impact of the Internet.. . . . . . . . 15

    Training and Education. . . . . . . . . . . . 19

        Law Enforcement Training.. . . . . . . . . . 19

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Chapter 2: Windows Operating and File Systems 32

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    Physical and Logical Storage.. . . . . . . . . . 34

        File Storage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    File Conversion and Numbering Formats.. . . . . . . . 37

        Conversion of Binary to Decimal.. . . . . . . . 37

        Hexadecimal Numbering. . . . . . . . . . 37

        Conversion of Hexadecimal to Decimal. . . . . . . 38

        Conversion of Hexadecimal to ASCII (American Standard Code) for Information Interchange.. . . . . . . . . 38

        Unicode.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    Operating Systems.. . . . . . . . . . . . 42

        The Boot Process.. . . . . . . . . . . 42

        Windows File Systems.. . . . . . . . . . 44

    Windows Registry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

        Registry Data Types.. . . . . . . . . . . 52

        FTK Registry Viewer.. . . . . . . . . . . 52

    Microsoft Windows Features.. . . . . . . . . . 53

        Windows Vista.. . . . . . . . . . . . 53

        Windows 7.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

        Windows 8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Chapter 3: Handling Computer Hardware 80

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

    Hard Disk Drives.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

        Small Computer System Interface (SCSI).. . . . . . . 81

        Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE). . . . . . . . 82

        Serial ATA (SATA).. . . . . . . . . . . 83

    Cloning a PATA or SATA Hard Disk.. . . . . . . . . 86

        Cloning Devices.. . . . . . . . . . . . 86

    Removable Memory.. . . . . . . . . . . . 93

        FireWire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

        USB Flash Drives.. . . . . . . . . . . . 94

        External Hard Drives.. . . . . . . . . . . 95

        MultiMedia Cards (MMCs).. . . . . . . . . . 96

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

    References.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Chapter 4: Acquiring Evidence in a Computer Forensics Lab 116

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

    Lab Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . 117

        American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors.. . . . . 117

        American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Lab Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB). . . . . . . . 117

        ASCLD/LAB Guidelines for Forensic Laboratory Management Practices.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

        Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence (SWGDE).. . . 119

    Private Sector Computer Forensics Laboratories.. . . . . . 119

        Evidence Acquisition Laboratory.. . . . . . . . 120

        Email Preparation Laboratory.. . . . . . . . . 120

        Inventory Control.. . . . . . . . . . . 120

        Web Hosting. . . . . . . . . . . . 121

    Computer Forensics Laboratory Requirements.. . . . . . 121

        Laboratory Layout.. . . . . . . . . . . 121

        Laboratory Management. . . . . . . . . . 141

        Laboratory Access. . . . . . . . . . . 141

    Extracting Evidence from a Device.. . . . . . . . . 144

        Using the dd Utility.. . . . . . . . . . . 144

        Using Global Regular Expressions Print (GREP). . . . . 145

    Skimmers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

Chapter 5: Online Investigations 162

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

    Working Undercover. . . . . . . . . . . . 163

        Generate an Identity.. . . . . . . . . . . 164

        Generate an Email Account.. . . . . . . . . 165

        Mask Your Identity. . . . . . . . . . . 167

    Website Evidence.. . . . . . . . . . . . 171

        Website Archives.. . . . . . . . . . . 171

        Website Statistics.. . . . . . . . . . . 172

    Background Searches on a Suspect. . . . . . . . . 173

        Personal Information: Mailing Address, Email Address, Telephone Number, and Assets. . . . . . . . 174

        Personal Interests and Membership of User Groups.. . . . 178

        Searching for Stolen Property.. . . . . . . . . 179

    Online Crime.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

        Identity Theft.. . . . . . . . . . . . 195

        Credit Cards for Sale. . . . . . . . . . . 195

        Electronic Medical Records.. . . . . . . . . 196

        Cyberbullying.. . . . . . . . . . . . 196

        Social Networking.. . . . . . . . . . . 196

    Capturing Online Communications.. . . . . . . . . 197

        Using Screen Captures.. . . . . . . . . . 197

        Using Video.. . . . . . . . . . . . 199

        Viewing Cookies.. . . . . . . . . . . 199

        Using Windows Registry.. . . . . . . . . . 200

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Chapter 6: Documenting the Investigation 210

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

    Obtaining Evidence from a Service Provider.. . . . . . . 211

    Documenting a Crime Scene.. . . . . . . . . . 211

    Seizing Evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

        Crime Scene Examinations. . . . . . . . . 213

    Documenting the Evidence.. . . . . . . . . . 214

        Completing a Chain of Custody Form.. . . . . . . 215

        Completing a Computer Worksheet. . . . . . . . 216

        Completing a Hard Disk Drive Worksheet.. . . . . . 217

        Completing a Server Worksheet. . . . . . . . 218

    Using Tools to Document an Investigation. . . . . . . 220

        CaseNotes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

        FragView. . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

        Helpful Mobile Applications (Apps).. . . . . . . . 221

        Network Analyzer. . . . . . . . . . . 221

        System Status.. . . . . . . . . . . . 221

        The Cop App.. . . . . . . . . . . . 221

        Lock and Code. . . . . . . . . . . . 221

        Digital Forensics Reference.. . . . . . . . . 221

        Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP).. . . . . . . 222

        Federal Rules of Evidence (FREvidence).. . . . . . . 222

    Writing Reports.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

        Time Zones and Daylight Saving Time (DST).. . . . . . 222

        Creating a Comprehensive Report. . . . . . . . 224

    Using Expert Witnesses at Trial. . . . . . . . . . 227

        The Expert Witness.. . . . . . . . . . . 228

        The Goals of the Expert Witness.. . . . . . . . 228

        Preparing an Expert Witness for Trial.. . . . . . . 228

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Chapter 7: Admissibility of Digital Evidence 238

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

    History and Structure of the United States Legal System. . . . 239

        Origins of the U.S. Legal System.. . . . . . . . 240

        Overview of the U.S. Court System.. . . . . . . . 241

        In the Courtroom.. . . . . . . . . . . 245

    Evidence Admissibility.. . . . . . . . . . . 248

    Constitutional Law.. . . . . . . . . . . . 248

        First Amendment.. . . . . . . . . . . 248

        First Amendment and the Internet.. . . . . . . . 249

        Fourth Amendment.. . . . . . . . . . . 251

        Fifth Amendment.. . . . . . . . . . . 263

        Sixth Amendment.. . . . . . . . . . . 264

        Congressional Legislation. . . . . . . . . . 265

        Rules for Evidence Admissibility. . . . . . . . 271

        Criminal Defense.. . . . . . . . . . . 276

    When Computer Forensics Goes Wrong.. . . . . . . . 277

        Pornography in the Classroom. . . . . . . . . 277

    Structure of the Legal System in the European Union (E.U.).. . . . 278

        Origins of European Law. . . . . . . . . . 278

        Structure of European Union Law.. . . . . . . . 279

    Structure of the Legal System in Asia. . . . . . . . 282

        China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

        India.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

Chapter 8: Network Forensics 292

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

    The Tools of the Trade.. . . . . . . . . . . 293

    Networking Devices.. . . . . . . . . . . . 294

        Proxy Servers. . . . . . . . . . . . 295

        Web Servers. . . . . . . . . . . . 295

        DHCP Servers.. . . . . . . . . . . . 298

        SMTP Servers.. . . . . . . . . . . . 299

        DNS Servers. . . . . . . . . . . . 301

        Routers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

        IDS.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

        Firewalls.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

        Ports.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

    Understanding the OSI Model.. . . . . . . . . . 305

        The Physical Layer. . . . . . . . . . . 306

        The Data Link Layer. . . . . . . . . . . 306

        The Network Layer. . . . . . . . . . . 306

        The Transport Layer.. . . . . . . . . . . 307

        The Session Layer.. . . . . . . . . . . 308

        The Presentation Layer.. . . . . . . . . . 308

        The Application Layer.. . . . . . . . . . 309

    Advanced Persistent Threats. . . . . . . . . . 310

        Cyber Kill Chain.. . . . . . . . . . . . 310

        Indicators of Compromise (IOC). . . . . . . . 312

    Investigating a Network Attack.. . . . . . . . . . 313

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

Chapter 9: Mobile Forensics 320

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

    The Cellular Network.. . . . . . . . . . . . 322

        Base Transceiver Station.. . . . . . . . . . 322

        Mobile Station.. . . . . . . . . . . . 326

        Cellular Network Types.. . . . . . . . . . 331

        SIM Card Forensics.. . . . . . . . . . . 334

        Types of Evidence.. . . . . . . . . . . 337

    Handset Specifications.. . . . . . . . . . . 338

        Memory and Processing.. . . . . . . . . . 338

        Battery.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

        Other Hardware.. . . . . . . . . . . . 338

    Mobile Operating Systems. . . . . . . . . . . 339

        Android OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

        Windows Phone. . . . . . . . . . . . 347

    Standard Operating Procedures for Handling Handset Evidence.. . . 347

        National Institute of Standards and Technology .. . . . . 348

        Preparation and Containment. . . . . . . . . 349

        Wireless Capabilities.. . . . . . . . . . . 352

        Documenting the Investigation. . . . . . . . . 354

    Handset Forensics.. . . . . . . . . . . . 354

        Cellphone Forensic Software.. . . . . . . . . 354

        Cellphone Forensics Hardware.. . . . . . . . 357

        Logical versus Physical Examination.. . . . . . . 358

    Manual Cellphone Examinations.. . . . . . . . . 358

        Flasher Box.. . . . . . . . . . . . 359

    Global Satellite Service Providers.. . . . . . . . . 360

        Satellite Communication Services.. . . . . . . . 360

    Legal Considerations.. . . . . . . . . . . . 360

        Carrier Records.. . . . . . . . . . . . 361

    Other Mobile Devices.. . . . . . . . . . . . 361

        Tablets.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

        GPS Devices.. . . . . . . . . . . . 362

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

Chapter 10: Photograph Forensics 372

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

    Understanding Digital Photography.. . . . . . . . . 375

        File Systems.. . . . . . . . . . . . 375

        Digital Photography Applications and Services.. . . . . 376

    Examining Picture Files.. . . . . . . . . . . 377

        Exchangeable Image File Format (EXIF).. . . . . . . 377

    Evidence Admissibility.. . . . . . . . . . . 380

        Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE).. . . . . . . . 380

        Analog vs. Digital Photographs.. . . . . . . . 381

    Case Studies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

        Worldwide Manhunt.. . . . . . . . . . . 382

        NYPD Facial Recognition Unit.. . . . . . . . . 383

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

Chapter 11: Mac Forensics 390

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

    A Brief History.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

        Macintosh. . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

        Mac Mini with OS X Server.. . . . . . . . . 391

        iPod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

        iPhone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

        iPad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

        Apple Wi-Fi Devices.. . . . . . . . . . . 395

    Macintosh File Systems.. . . . . . . . . . . 397

    Forensic Examinations of a Mac.. . . . . . . . . 398

        IOReg Info.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

        PMAP Info.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

        Epoch Time.. . . . . . . . . . . . 399

        Recovering Deleted Files.. . . . . . . . . . 401

        Journaling. . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

        DMG File System.. . . . . . . . . . . 401

        PList Files.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

        SQLite Databases.. . . . . . . . . . . 404

    Macintosh Operating Systems.. . . . . . . . . . 404

        Mac OS X.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 405

        Target Disk Mode.. . . . . . . . . . . 408

    Apple Mobile Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . 409

        iOS.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

        iOS 7.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

        iOS 8.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

        Security and Encryption.. . . . . . . . . . 411

        iPod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412

        iPhone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

        Enterprise Deployment of iPhone and iOS Devices.. . . . 426

    Case Studies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

        Find My iPhone.. . . . . . . . . . . . 427

        Wanted Hactevist.. . . . . . . . . . . 427

        Michael Jackson.. . . . . . . . . . . 427

        Stolen iPhone. . . . . . . . . . . . 427

        Drug Bust.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 427

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428

Chapter 12: Case Studies 436

    Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

    Zacharias Moussaoui.. . . . . . . . . . . . 437

        Background.. . . . . . . . . . . . 437

        Digital Evidence.. . . . . . . . . . . . 438

        Standby Counsel Objections.. . . . . . . . . 439

        Prosecution Affidavit.. . . . . . . . . . . 440

        Exhibits.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

        Email Evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . 440

    BTK (Bind Torture Kill) Killer. . . . . . . . . . 441

        Profile of a Killer. . . . . . . . . . . . 441

        Evidence.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

    Cyberbullying.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

        Federal Anti-harassment Legislation.. . . . . . . 443

        State Anti-harassment Legislation.. . . . . . . . 443

        Warning Signs of Cyberbullying.. . . . . . . . 443

        What Is Cyberbullying?.. . . . . . . . . . 444

        Phoebe Prince.. . . . . . . . . . . . 444

        Ryan Halligan.. . . . . . . . . . . . 445

        Megan Meier.. . . . . . . . . . . . 445

        Tyler Clementi.. . . . . . . . . . . . 445

    Sports.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

    Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

TOC, 9780789741158, 11/20/2014

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