Plan, design, and configure high-speed fiber-optic networks
Fiber-optic networking has several significant advantages over traditional wired and wireless networks: optical signals can travel much farther than electrical signals, are more secure, are resistant to electromagnetic interference, and have the potential to provide bandwidth in the terabits per second range (1000 Gbps).
Service providers must satisfy the always-increasing networking demands of customers while keeping costs to a minimum. Optical networks must meet the challenge of supporting multiple types of transmissions including voice, video, and data traffic. Although time-division multiplexing (TDM) has provided a growth path for services, it is more constrained than IP + Optical strategies like the Cisco Dynamic Packet Transport (Resilient Packet Ring). The Cisco Systems® end-to-end IP + Optical networking strategy provides an intelligent converged network in which optical infrastructures can be used to their fullest potential.
While most reference books focus on the theory involved in SONET and optical infrastructures, Cisco Self-Study: Building Cisco Metro Optical Networks (METRO) focuses on the practical application of planning and configuring optical networks that involve SONET, DWDM, Metropolitan Ethernet, Packet over SONET, and Dynamic Packet Transport (Resilient Packet Ring).
Cisco Self-Study: Building Cisco Metro Optical Networks (METRO) is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco Systems that can include simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press. To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, please visit www.cisco.com/go/authorizedtraining.
This volume is in the Certification Self-Study Series offered by Cisco Press. Books in this series provide officially developed training solutions to help networking professionals understand technology implementations and prepare for the Cisco Career Certifications examinations.
1. Metro Area Optical Networks.
Components of a MAN. Metro. Service POP. Core. MAN Services. Access Services. Metro Optical Services. Service POP Services. Core Services. MAON Physical Topologies. Four Key Service Traffic Patterns. Service Offerings and Opportunities. Corporate Network RequirementsService Technologies. Summary. Review Questions.
A Short History of Voice and Data Transmission. Digital Hierarchy. Developing a Digital Hierarchy Outside the United States. Expanding the Digital Hierarchy. Summary. Review Questions.
SONET and SDH Overview. SONET Development and Fundamentals. SONET Advantages. Single-Step Multiplexing. Access to Low-level Signal Directly. Carry Existing DS1, DS3, ATM, and Packet Traffic. Synchronous Timing to Eliminate Bit Stuffing. Allow Transmission of Data at Higher Speeds. SONET Layers. Photonic Layer. Section Layer. Line Layer. Path Layer. SONET Framing. Section Overhead. Line Overhead. Path Overhead. SONET Network Elements. Terminal Multiplexer. Add/Drop Multiplexers. Regenerators or Amplifiers. Digital Cross-Connects. SONET DCS. Digital Loop Carriers. Drop and Continue. SONET Topologies. Point-to-Point Topology. Point-to-Multipoint/Linear Topology. Mesh Topology. Ring Topology. Automatic Protection Switching. Path-Protected Mesh Network. Cisco BLSR Ring Enhancements. SONET Alarms. Error-Causing Events. Error Event Propagation. Performance Event Collection. SONET Management. Cisco SONET Enhancements. SONET Network Element Management. Cisco UPSR Ring Enhancements. Summary. Review Questions.
Choosing a Cisco Metro-Area Network Platform. Cisco ONS 15454 Optical Platform. Control Cards. Electrical Cards. Optical Cards. Ethernet Cards. Cisco ONS 15327 Platform. Common Control and Electrical Cards. Optical and Ethernet Cards. Cisco Transport Controller. Summary. Review Questions.
Initial Configuration of the Cisco ONS 15454 and 15327. Troubleshooting CTC. Entering Basic Node Information. General Subtab. Network Subtab. Security Subtab. Protection Subtab. Configuring SONET Timing. Timing in Linear Networks. Timing in Metro Rings. Ring Synchronization. Timing Subtab. Activating Cards. Ring Configurations. Two-Fiber BLSR Architecture. Four-Fiber BLSR Architecture. Creating UPSR Rings Through the SONET DCC Subtab. Verifying a UPSR Ring Configuration. Creating Two-Fiber BLSR Rings. Provisioning the BLSR. Verifying a BLSR Ring Configuration. Four-Fiber BLSR Ring. Summary. Review Questions.
Market Drivers for Metropolitan Ethernet. Metropolitan Ethernet Market Drivers. Metro Ethernet Architectures. Customer Premises Equipment. POP Interconnect. Transporting Metro Ethernet. Ethernet over SONET. Ethernet over DWDM. Point-to-Point Dedicated Metro Ethernet Circuits. Point-to-Multipoint Shared/Shared Packet Ring. Quality of Service. ONS 15454 and ONS 15327 Metro Ethernet Blades. Summary. Review Questions.
Configuring Metro Ethernet Circuits. Step 1: Card Mode Configuration. Step 2: Configuring Port Options. Step 3: VLAN Configuration. Step 4: Creating Circuits. Step 5: Circuit Verification. Troubleshooting Metro Ethernet Connectivity. Summary. Review Questions.
Challenges in the Metro-Area Network. Multiplexing Optical Signals. The Technology Behind DWDM. DWDM Components. DWDM Optical Limitations. Cisco DWDM Equipment. OC-48 ELR ITU Optics. Cisco ONS 15216 Filters (200-GHz Spacing). Planning an Optical System Using Cisco Equipment. Span-Loss Calculation. Building a DWDM Infrastructure. DWDM Network Requirements. Provisioning the OC-48 ELR ITU Optics Card. Summary. Review Questions.
Evolution of Voice and Data Networks. Applications for PoS. ATM and PoS. PoS Transport. Multiaccess Protocol over SONET. Packet over SONET Operation and Specifications. High-Order Containment. Payload Scrambling. PoS Efficiencies. PoS Network Designs. One Router. Two Routers. PoS Protection Schemes. PoS Convergence. Flapping. Load Balancing. Alarms and PoS. Summary. Review Questions.
Cisco 12000 Series PoS Line Cards. Cisco PoS Line Card Features. Packet over SONET Physical Fiber Configuration. Configuring PoS Interfaces. Accessing the PoS Interface. IP Address. Encapsulation. Framing. Payload Scrambling. CRC. Clocking. PoS ais-shut Command. Alarm Thresholds. Sample PoS Interface Configurations. PoS Configuration Without Protection. PoS Configuration with APS Protection. PoS show Commands. show controllers pos Command. show protocols pos Command. show interfaces pos Command. show aps Command. Verifying the PoS Configuration Using ping. Physical Interface Loopbacks. Summary. Review Questions.
Background Information. IP+Optical Concepts. DPT: An Efficient MAN Solution. Internetworking with SONET. DPT in Campus and MAN Environments. SRP. SRP Protection. SRP Packets. DPT Rings. SRP Ring Selection. Ethernet and the DPT Ring. Automatic Configuration of DPT Rings. DPT Quality of Service. SRP Fairness Algorithm (SRP-fa). SRP-fa Monitoring. Maintaining Network Reliability. Automatic Reconfiguration and Rerouting. Node States and Ring Operation. Summary. Review Questions.
Reviewing the Cisco DPT Platforms. Metro IP Access Ring with DPT. DPT Configuration. Verifying and Troubleshooting DPT. DPT show Commands. show interfaces srp Command. show srp Command. show version Command. show diag Command. show controllers srp Command. show srp topology Command. DPT debug Commands. debug srp protocol error Command. debug srp ips Command. debug srp nodename Command. debug srp packet Command. debug srp periodic activity Command. debug srp topology Command. DPT over an ONS 15454/15327 SONET Ring. ONS 15454 and 15327 DPT Circuit Provisioning. Summary. Review Questions.
Steps for Developing a Metro Optical Solution. Customer Requirements. Component Manufacturers. System Manufacturers. Fiber Manufacturers. Service Providers. Physical Technical Specifications. Fiber-Loss Variables. Fiber-Loss Information for ONS 15216 and 15454 Products. ONS 15216 Product Specifications. ONS 15216 DWDM Filters. ONS 15454 Line Cards. Power Conversion (Aggregate to Per Channel). Power-Conversion Examples (Aggregate to Per Channel). Exercises. Exercise Formulas. Exercise 1. Exercise 2. Exercise 3. Case Study 1: SPR Enterprises. Phase 1: Identify Requirements. Phase 2: Identify Options. Phase 3: Design Solution. Phase 4: Create a Solution Summary. Case Study 1 Solution: SPR Enterprises. Case Study 2: FC Enterprises. Phase 1: Identify Requirements. Phase 2: Identify Options. Phase 3: Design Solution. Phase 4: Create a Solution Summary. Case Study 2 Solution: FC Enterprises. Objective. Solution.