This chapter introduced the concept of large-scale Java platforms and described how they generally fall into one of three categories:
- Category 1: Large number of JVMs
- Category 2: Smaller number of JVMs with large heap sizes
- Category 3: A combination of category 1 and 2
The chapter also examined the various theoretical and practical limits that exists within the JVM and outlined various workload types and commonly encountered JVM sizes. The chapter also discussed the NUMA and the various pros and cons of horizontal scalability, vertical scalability, JVM consolidation, and VM consolidation.