Buerger's disease (thromboangilitis obliterans) results when spasms of the arteries and veins occur primarily in the lower extremities. These spasms result in blood clot formation and eventually destruction of the vessels. Symptoms associated with Buerger's include pallor of the extremities progressing to cyanosis, pain, and paresthesia. As time progresses, tophic changes occur in the extremities. Management of the client with Buerger's involves the use of Buerger-Allen exercises, vasodilators, and oxygenation. The client should be encouraged to stop smoking because smoking makes the condition worse.