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This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Exam Prep Questions

  1. The young child was enamored with his new birthday present.

    The word enamored means

    • circle-shade.jpg A. Happy
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Captivated
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Confused
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Distraught
  2. Some people think that the real issue behind the smoking ban is discrimination, and discussing the dangers of smoking only obscures the real issue.

    The word obscures means

    • circle-shade.jpg A. Conceals
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Undermines
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Makes more obvious
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Makes evident
  3. The security guard’s countenance deterred any rowdiness at the game.

    The word countenance means

    • circle-shade.jpg A. Presence
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Absence
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Expression
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Tolerance
  4. The students displayed a heedless attitude toward the substitute teacher in their classroom.

    The word heedless means

    • circle-shade.jpg A. Careful
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Without regard
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Respectful
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Polite
  5. Before the final game, the coach used many tactics to instill the hope in his players that winning was possible.

    The word instill means

    • circle-shade.jpg A. Inspire
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Discourage
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Dampen
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Dishearten
  6. Six Degrees of Separation

    Social networks are based on the work of Stanley Milgrim. In 1967, he sent packages to randomly selected people in Omaha, Nebraska—asking them each to mail the package back to a stockbroker in Boston. They were asked to pass it along to someone they thought was better able to find the target. Milgrim found that on average only six acquaintances were needed for the package to find its target. Hence, the six degrees of separation are commonly understood as the number of people between us and an unknown acquaintance. (This concept was also popularized with the Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon game, a game in which contestants try to connect Kevin Bacon to another actor by listing the movies they have in common.)

    In 1998, researchers at Columbia University attempted to re-create Milgrim’s findings online by asking people to forward an email to someone more likely to be an acquaintance of the target. The average chain was completed in about six hops (five if the source and target person were in the same country). However, only 384 of the more than 24,000 chains were completed. The researcher’s small-world hypothesis held up in the digital age, but only when the source believed in the strength of his network and was motivated to proceed. There are many venues in which to network and build networks, but the sources in Columbia’s study needed to believe in the probability of success to complete their action in the chain.

    What is the main idea of this passage?

    • circle-shade.jpg A. Social networks are based on the work of Stanley Milgrim.
    • circle-shade.jpg B. It’s difficult to tap into our people network.
    • circle-shade.jpg C. We are actually more closely connected than we think.
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Columbia University performed a study about online social networks.
  7. Troubleshooting is solving a problem. It doesn’t matter whether it’s a computer problem or a car problem: It’s still troubleshooting. Here’s the number one rule for troubleshooting: Use the scientific method. One concept in the scientific method is critical for troubleshooting. It is the process of elimination.

    First, you come up with an idea of what the solution might be, and then you come up with a test to see whether your theory is correct. If it’s correct, great...fix the problem. If it’s wrong, you’ve eliminated one theory, and you go back to step one and formulate a new theory based on the new information that you have.

    Here’s a very simple example of how the process of elimination works: The server is running slowly. The problem could be heat, humidity, RAM, electrical problems, cables, the hard disk, the processor, a program on the server, the network, the network hub, the router, the number of users on the network, the time of day (in conjunction with the number of users on the network), or the number of network requests. The list goes on and on. Immediately, you could probably eliminate the possibility of heat, humidity, and electrical problems by simply going into the room and noticing that it’s cool and dry, the other systems are working fine, and that the external cables are well seated and intact. From there, you have the hard disk, RAM, the processor, programs, and network-related stuff.

    What is the main idea of the passage?

    • circle-shade.jpg A. The scientific method of troubleshooting uses the process of elimination.
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Computers cause a lot of problems.
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Formulate a theory and then test the theory.
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Troubleshooting is solving a problem.
  8. The current age of technology and gadgets has seriously affected literacy among younger generations. Many young children today prefer to play videos games instead of reading books. The impact is of this is quite disconcerting, with approximately 50% of the nation’s unemployed youth age 16 to 21 being functional illiterate.

    When your child was born, you probably received some information about the importance of reading to your child and perhaps you even received a child’s book to begin. You may have thought that when your child was only a few days old it was not that useful to read to them. You were busy feeding, changing, and bathing your child. However, it is important to get into the habit of reading regularly to your child. Reading to your child should not be something that is done occasionally but should be part of your daily routine.

    Research has shown that children who are read to regularly will be more successful in school. The amount of preschool storybook as opposed to other types of literacy-related activities is related to reading achievement in school. These children see that reading is something that they can master; in fact, they can probably read several books that have been read to them multiple times. This success gives them the belief that they can deal with the ideas and words in new books. They understand that stories have meaning and they can use the ideas presented in stories to predict some of the words that will be in the books. They have also heard the literary language in books that will help them to deal with the language in stories. In addition, they have learned how print works in books. These skills are important for your child to have an easy transition into school and be successful in school. You can help to establish these skills by reading to your child regularly.

    What is the main idea of the passage?

    • circle-shade.jpg A. Technology has seriously affected literacy.
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Children spend too much time playing video games.
    • circle-shade.jpg C. It is important to read to children.
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Parents are too busy to read to their children.
  9. In the last sentence of the first paragraph, the word disconcerting means

    • circle-shade.jpg A. Reassuring
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Disturbing
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Relating to
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Evident
  10. Australia was emerging as a nation of considerable wealth by 1900. As the nation grew and the economy became stronger, Australia hoped to join Britain’s former colonies as a country of great wealth and future potential.

    Prior to 1900, most development occurred in the areas of ports, roads, and railways. Because the country relied heavily on the sale of its produce, it would sustain a financial hit if its produce was not able to reach local and overseas markets. As a result, an efficient system for transporting produce was important to the growth of many industries.

    Along with developing an efficient transport system, other inventions at the turn of the century also contributed to Australia’s wealth. Of these new inventions, one of the most important was the invention of a method for transporting frozen goods. This invention played an important part in strengthening Australia’s economy and allowed Australia to sell and transport its primary products to overseas markets.

    What is the main idea of the passage?

    • circle-shade.jpg A. The strength of the Australian economy
    • circle-shade.jpg B. The new inventions at the turn of the century
    • circle-shade.jpg C. The development of the Australian economy
    • circle-shade.jpg D. The importance of refrigeration in strengthening Australia’s economy
  11. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
    • circle-shade.jpg A. Series of interrelated ideas.
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Series of chronological events
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Criticism and evaluation
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Fact or opinion
  12. In the last sentence of the passage, the word primary means which of the following?
    • circle-shade.jpg A. First
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Basic
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Main
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Minor
  13. When it came to choosing a leader for Australia, the obvious choices included those men who made significant contributions to the forming of the country’s constitution.

    One such person was Edmund Barton. He was a lawyer from New South Wales and the prime minister of Australia from 1901 to 1903. His most memorable contributions included the creation of the Australian High Court and the passing of the Immigration Restriction Act in 1901. Edmund Barton was also a protectionist and a member of the Protectionist party, which was very influential until 1910.

    Another person involved in the drafting of Australia’s constitution was Alfred Deakin. He was a lawyer and journalist from Victoria, who served as prime minister from 1903 to 1910. He is remembered for the Basic Wage Act, which addressed economic concerns; for the formation of the Australian Arbitration Commission; and for establishing the Royal Military College at Duntroon. The Australian Capital Territory was also established while Alfred Deakin was in office.

    From 1908 to 1913, Andrew Fisher was the Labor prime minister. Because he was a former coal miner, he was viewed as a representative of the Australian worker. He was best known for the creation of the Commonwealth Bank.

    When was Edmund Barton prime minister of Australia?

    • circle-shade.jpg A. 1910
    • circle-shade.jpg B. 1910 to 1913
    • circle-shade.jpg C. 1903 to 1910
    • circle-shade.jpg D. 1905 to 1908
    • circle-shade.jpg E. 1901 to 1903
  14. What was passed to address economic concerns?
    • circle-shade.jpg A. Australian Capital Territory
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Basic Wage Act
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Australian Arbitration Commission
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Immigration Restriction Act
  15. What is the main idea of the passage?
    • circle-shade.jpg A. Many acts were passed during 1901 and 1910.
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Edmund Barton was the most influential man in Australia.
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Several important men made significant contributions to Australia’s constitution.
    • circle-shade.jpg D. The influence of the Protectionist party.
  16. When was the Immigration Restriction Act passed?
    • circle-shade.jpg A. 1901
    • circle-shade.jpg B. 1903
    • circle-shade.jpg C. 1905
    • circle-shade.jpg D. 1908
  17. Pioneer children in the 1800s had a different lifestyle than children growing up today. Children growing up in this generation get to experience many different pleasures. However, for pioneer children, life was very different. It was full of danger, daily chores, and minimal pleasures.

    Pioneer families made the grueling trip to the West by wagons. Breakfast was prepared and eaten before sunrise, and then the wagons were loaded. After they began traveling, they only stopped for a few short breaks. At night, when it was too dark to keep going, the wagons would stop for the night, forming a circle for protection. However, the children were still expected to complete their chores before playtime.

    The journey west was only the beginning. When a pioneer family arrived, they still needed to clear a piece of land and build a home. The homes were not made of brick and stucco as they are today. Rather, they were made of logs or sod. Children were expected to help with building the home. Daily chores resumed after the home was built. These usually included plowing fields, tending to animals, cooking, and sewing.

    However, life was not all work for pioneer children. They did have time to play after their chores were finished. Sunday was also considered a special day of the week. It was the day when neighboring families would get together for picnics and dances after church.

    Pioneer children experienced many hardships as they grew up. However, many of these children later made the wild frontier home for their own families.

    What is the main idea of this passage?

    • circle-shade.jpg A. Pioneer children had a lot of chores to do.
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Pioneers traveled all day.
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Pioneer families traveled in wagons.
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Pioneer children did not lead easy lives.
  18. Which detail best supports the main idea of this passage?
    • circle-shade.jpg A. Pioneer children had to help build the homestead and do daily chores.
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Pioneer families traveled west in wagons.
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Pioneer children had a lot of space in which to run and play.
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Neighboring families gathered on Sundays.
  19. What is the best summary of the third paragraph?
    • circle-shade.jpg A. Pioneer families lived in log cabins and sod houses.
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Pioneer children were expected to perform daily chores.
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Pioneer families cleared a piece of land and built a homestead. Children helped build the homestead as part of daily chores.
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Life was not easy for pioneer children.
  20. What is the meaning of the word grueling?
    • circle-shade.jpg A. Easy
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Long
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Simple
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Tough
  21. During ancient times, the Veneti occupied the land surrounding Venice. According to common belief, Venice was founded in 452 A.D. when people from numerous cities in northern Italy came to the islands of the lagoon to seek protection from the Teutonic barbarians who invaded Italy during the fifth century. The refugees from northern Italy eventually established their own government. It was headed by tribunes for each of the 12 principal islands. Venice was practically independent, even though it was technically part of the Eastern Roman Empire. Venice was then organized as a republic in 697. The threat of foreign invasion kept the Venetians united, even when there was internal dissension.

    Attacks occurred against Venice in 836 and 900 by the Saracens and the Hungarians, respectively. A commercial treaty was signed with the Saracens in 991. The treaty established a policy of trade between the Venetians and the Muslims. Venice soon became the greatest commercial trade center for the East because of the Crusades and the development of trade with the Orient.

    In 1204, the Byzantine Empire was partitioned. The republic profited from this and went on to become Europe’s strongest political power in the Mediterranean region. Although Venice was technically a republic, it became a firm oligarchy by the end of the thirteenth century.

    In what year did the Venetians sign a treaty with the Saracens?

    • circle-shade.jpg A. 452
    • circle-shade.jpg B. 697
    • circle-shade.jpg C. 836
    • circle-shade.jpg D. 991
    • circle-shade.jpg D. 1204
  22. In the passage, what is the meaning of the word dissension?
    • circle-shade.jpg A. Consent
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Conflict
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Peace
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Hatred
    • circle-shade.jpg E. Harmony
  23. Which group attacked Venice in 900?
    • circle-shade.jpg A. Hungarians
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Muslims
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Veneti
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Romans
    • circle-shade.jpg E. Saracens
  24. When did the Venetians organize Venice as a republic?
    • circle-shade.jpg A. 452
    • circle-shade.jpg B. 900
    • circle-shade.jpg C. 991
    • circle-shade.jpg D. 836
    • circle-shade.jpg E. 697
  25. Tom’s mind was made up now. He was gloomy and desperate. He was a forsaken, friendless boy, he said. Nobody loved him. When they found out what they had driven him to, perhaps they would be sorry. He had tried to do right and get along, but they would not let him. Because nothing would do them but to be rid of him, let it be so. Let them blame him for the consequences—why shouldn’t they? What right had the friendless to complain? Yes, they had forced him to at last. He would lead a life of crime. There was no choice.

    The author of the passage implies which of the following?

    • circle-shade.jpg A. Tom felt that things were going his way.
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Tom was feeling sorry for himself.
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Tom decided to lead a life of pleasure.
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Tom was planning to go home.
  26. Sue looked solicitously out of the window. What was there to count? There was only a bare dreary yard to be seen, and the blank side of the brick house twenty feet away. An old, old ivy vine, gnarled and decayed at the roots, climbed half way up the brick wall. The cold breath of autumn had stricken the leaves from the vine until its skeleton branches clung, almost bare, to the crumbling bricks.

    In the first sentence, what does the word solicitously mean?

    • circle-shade.jpg A. Anxiously
    • circle-shade.jpg B. Helpfully
    • circle-shade.jpg C. Thoughtlessly
    • circle-shade.jpg D. Attentively
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